Header

Stručni radovi

Vegan neprocesuirana biljna ishrana garancija je opstanka

Dr. Tijana Ivančević i Prof. Leon Lukman

Saradnja izmedju Tesla Science Evolution Institute, Adelaide, Australia i Sportske Akademije, Beograd, Srbija.

Sve više smo svesni potrebe da očuvamo i poboljšamo svoje mentalno i fizičko zdravlje, da obezbedimo što duži i srećaniji život, da sačuvamo fizičku i duhovnu lepotu, da poboljšamo imunitet i otpornost organizma, da povećamo radnu sposobnost, da sačuvamo polni potencijal; da eliminišemo pogubni uticaj: droge, alkohola, pušenja, stresa, nekretanja, predugogog sedenja, noćobdijanja, gojaznosti i naravno nezdrave ishrane.

Međutim, na ovoj stranici sajta Sportske akademije bavićemo se isključivo značajem i promocijom vegan neprocesuiranom biljnom ishranom. Obzirom da je naša nacionalna kuhinja "ekološka katastrofa", uvereni smo da činimo dobro delo u interesu očuvanja zdravlja našeg naroda i pre svega sportista. Predlozi i dokazi o vrednosti vegan neprocesuirane biljne ishrane koju čine voće, povrće, zitarice, leguminoze, koštunjavo voće i semenke potkrepljeni su naučnim radovima iz ove oblasti i bogatom literaturom.

Svedoci smo teških posledica nestručnog rada u sportu i pre svega loše ishrane-preventive i oporavka sportista o čemu će u našem sajtu takođe biti reči.

Skorašnji uspesi sportista koji primenjuju vegan ishranu, kao i pokret koji se eksponencijalno širi na planeti Zemlji motivisao nas je da napišemo ovu sagu o vegan neprocesuiranoj biljnoj ishranii i ubedimo naše ljude u hitnost menjanja pogubnih navika svoje tradicionalne ishrane.

Ovo je grafikon koji pokazuje smrtnost od kancera i srčanih oboljenja (crveno) i kolicina konzumirane hrane biljnog porekla (po zemljama):

Na sajtu organizacije "The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine" mogu se naći informacije, kursevi i 30 dana "kick start"- početak za vegansku zdravu neprocesuiranu biljnu hranu.

Naučna ideja i istraživanja o korisnosti neprocesuirane hrane biljnog porekla je počela sa Dr. Collin Campbell-om koji ima preko 60 godina finasirane projekte o ishrani i preko 300 radova u poznatim naučnim časopisima a njegova knjiga "Kineska studija" se smatra najboljom i najviše citiranom knjigom o uticaju ishrane na zdravlje koja je ikada napisana. Knjiga "Kineska Studija" koju su napisali Dr. T. Colin Campbell (profesor Nutricione Biohemije na Cornell Univerzitetu, koga zovu "nutricioni Ainstajn") i njegov sin Thomas, smatra se za osnovu moderne nauke o ishrani (nutrition science). Ovo istraživanje je dvadeset sedam godina bilo finansirano od strane najkonkurentnijih naučnih izvora finansiranja, uključujući Nacionalni institute za zdravlje (National Institutes of Health), Američko udruženje za rak (American Cancer Society) i Američki institut za istraživanje raka (American Institute for Cancer Research). Čitanje ove najsveobuhvatnije studije o ishrani, koja pruža zapanjujuće implikacije od suštinskog značaja za način ishrane, smanjivanje težine i dugoročno zdravlje, može spasiti živote i promeniti našu buducnost.

Prema Dr. Sushma Palmer, Direktoru odeljenja za Ishranu (Food and Nutrition Board), Americke Akademije Nauka, knijga "Kineska studija" je detaljna analiza ishrane zasnovana na preko 750 naučnih radova.

Knjiga "Kineska studija" daje novi naučni okvir (framework) za razumijevanje ishrane i zdravlja, za eliminisanje konfuzije i prevenciju bolesti. Dr. Collin Campbell je u 2011 godini snimljen u filmu “Viljuške umesto noževa” (Forks over Knives).

Posle mnogogodišnjeg istrživanja Dr. Cambell zaključuje da je optimalna hrana za ljude neprocesuirana hrana biljnog porekla: voće, povrće, žitarice, leguminoze, koštunjavo voće i semenke. Neprocesuirana biljna hrana je ona koja stiže direktno iz prirode, koja se ne prerađuje ni na koji način. Automatski u tu hranu ne ulaze namirnice kao sto su rafinirani šećer, belo brašno i sva ulja (klasičan primer je krofna koja u sebi ima sve tri procesuirane namirnice koje štetno deluju na ljudsko zdravlje). Karakteristrika biljne hrane je da uvek donosi koristi i zdravlje apsolutno svakoj ljudskoj osobi na zemlji i nikada ne može da ima negativne posledice. Svako može da odluči, da li mu odgovara da jede samo voće ili kombinaciju voća, semenki, koštunjavog voća ili ishranu sa svim ovim grupama, ali dokazi su dosledni da uvek neprocesuirana biljna hrana donosi savršeno zdravlje i zastitu od mnogih bolesti, često puta i izlečenje.

Ovo je grafikon koji pokazuje smrtnost od kancera i srčanih oboljenja (crveno) i količina konzumirane hrane biljnog porekla (po zemljama):

grafikon 1


Da je rak prouzrokovan povećanom potrošnjom mesa i mlečnih proizvoda je činjenica koja je već dugo prisutna u nauci. Pitanje je zašto se ta informacija ne širi u javnosti? Naravno time bi bili ugoroženi interesi velikih korporacija i svih onih koji eksploatišu zivotinje kao kapital. Rešenje je da se vratimo na ishranu neprocesuiranom biljnom hranom ali sa znanjem koje sada imamo o bogatim i raznovrsnim biljnim proizvodima.

Važno je napomenuti da je susedna Mađarska, sa kojom imamo mnogo zajedničkog u ishrani, vodeća zemlja u Evropi po količini konzumiranja mesa i broja obolelih od karcinoma.

Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju da ne postoji nijedan element, sastojak u životinjskoj hrani koji se ne može naći u dovolljnoj količini i u biljnoj hrani, tako da je korišcenje životinjske hrane nepotrebno i štetno za zdravlje čoveka!

Uzmimo primer proteina: rec protein je uvedena 1839. od strane holanskog hemičara. Reč proteos je uzeta iz starogrčkog jezika sto znači “najvažnije”. Krajem 19. veka i početkom 20. veka meso postaje sinonim za protein, jer je tada otkriveno da je u mesu velika količina proteina. Kasnije se otkriva da se protein iz mesa brzo absorbuje, tako da su naučnici nazvali životinjsku hranu protein visokog kvaliteta. Naravno sve je to imalo veiki impakt na ljude i industriju. Čak i danas prvo pitanje koje svi postavljaju kada im se ponudi zdrava ishrana biljnog porekla je: “Da li u toj hrani ima dovoljno proteina” i odgovor je “Naravno da ima.” Pouzdano se zna, da ima više nego dovoljno proteina i onoliko koliko je ljudima potrebno. Drugo, biljni proteini su prava vrsta proteina koja nam je potrebna. Biljni proteini se absorbuju brzinom koja je idealna za ljudsku homesostazu. Dokazano je da je unosenje životinjskih proteina štetno za ljude, a posebno je opasna njegova brza apsorpcija.

Reporter u filmu What the Health je upitao Dr. Milton-a: "Da li je neophodno da jedemo meso da bismo konzumirali dovoljnu količinu proteina?"

Dr. Milton Mills: "Pre svega, svi proteini su inicijalno stvoreni od biljaka, i prema tome uopšte nije potrebno jesti životinjsko tkivo da bi se dobili proteini. Samo biljke imaju sposobnost da ekstrahuju azot iz vazduha, i od njega stvaraju različite amino-kiseline, od kojih se sastoje svi proteini. Dakle, svi proteini životinjskog porekla su drugorazredni, svareni proteini biljnog porekla."

Dr. Michael Greger je u svojoj knjizi bestseleru "Kako da se ne umre" pokazao sa mnoštvom naučnih radova da su meso, mleko i jaja glavni uzroci 14 najgorih bolesti današnjice, koje se potpuno sprečavaju biljnom ishranom. Za više informacija pogledajte njegov sajt "Nutrition Facts".

Druga nelogičnost je dokazana štetnost korišćenje mleka kao što je kravlje, ovčije, kozije i mleko ostalih životinja, potvrdjena je u knjizi Cambellla i mnogim radovima. Ni jedna vrsta sisara na zemlji, za razliku od čoveka, ne koristi mleko posle perioda dojenja i u tom periodu koristi samo mleko svoje majke.

Prva hrana koju bi trebalo isključiti iz ishrane su mleko i mlečni prozivodi. Dokazano je da protein kazein koji je osnovni protein mleka momentalno diže nivo holesterola. Istraživanje kazeina je bilo finansirano preko 19 godina i objavljeno je preko 100 radova o tome koliko su mleko, mlečni i životinjski proizvodi pogubni za zdravlje čoveka. Istraživanja pokazuju da je kazein moćan inicijator rasta timora. Čim se kazein unose u organizam inicira rast tumora u roku od nekoliko sati, a zbacivanjem kazeina iz ishrane tumor se smanjuje. Kazein je kao okidač za rast tumora. Ovo važi i za bilo koji drugi životinjski protein. Svi karcinogeni koje konzumiramo: pesticidi, herbicidi i slično nisu ništa u predejenju sa kazeinom i njegovim delovanjem na rast tumora. Da se sumira, kazein znači momentalno diže nivo holesterola, inicira rast tumora, utiče na razvoj insulina odgovornong za diabetesa tipa 1, jer kada se unese u želudac, razlaže se u amino kiseline , a drugi delovi ostaju u obliku peptida. Ovi lanci prolaze kroz šupljine u želucu i odlaze u krv, a krv odlučuje da li da ga unisti kao strano telo, ili ne. Kada se to antitelo nađe sa identičnim peptidom u pankreasu i kada se to desi čovek, a često i dete koje konzumira mleko prestaje da proizvodi insulin i dobija diabetes tipa 1. Za kazein je takođe dokazano da je glavni uzrok katarakte i alergija. Ova lista raste svake godine. Zato je najveći problem sadanašnje stanje svesti ljudskog drustva da je korišćenje mleka i mlečnih proizvoda velika opasnost za ljudsko zdravlje. Nažalost, to se zna već 70 godina. Zašto se to krije od ljudi? Kravlje meleko je perfektan hrana za telad, ljudsko mleko je savršena hrana za ljudske bebe. Davanje kravljeg mleka i ostalih sisara deci i odraslim ljudima je apsolutna besmislica. Ako se uz to doda koktel današnjice, hormoni koji se daju kravama da proizvedu više mleka, zbog čega dobijaju mastititis i nfekcije. Takođe postoje mnogobrojna istraživanja koja pokazuju da u zemljama gde se koristi najviše mleka ima najviše slučajeva osteporoze. Čim se unese životinjski protein ili mleko i mlečni proizvodi koje možemo nazvati "tečno meso", stvara se veliki aciditet i telo se brani time što izvlači kalcijum iz krvnih sudova i kasnije iz kostiju da vrati baznu atmosferu krvi.

Dr. Milton Mills, Kritična praksa (Critical Care) tvrdi da postoji jaka pozitivna korelacija izmedju konzumiranja mleka i mlečnih proizvoda sa:

  1. Autoimunim bolestima, kao što je astma kod odraslih i naročito kod dece,
  2. Multiplom sklerozom i
  3. Diabetesom prve vrste.

    Uz ove tri kategorije bolesti izazvanih konzumiranjem mleka, koje se u ovim krugovima naziva "tečnim mesom", treba još dodati:

  4. Kancer dojke kod žena i
  5. kancer prostate kod muškaraca.


Rezultati ove knjige nedvosmisleno pokazuju da su mnoga opšte prihvaćena ubedjenja o ishrani, zdravlju i bolestima - pogresni. Ovo uključuje i sledeće najnovije činjenice:

  • Sintetičke hemikalije u nasem okruženju i u našoj hrani, koliko god bile problematične, nisu glavni uzrok raka.
  • Geni koje smo nasledili od roditelja nisu najvažniji faktori koji određuju da li ćemo biti žrtve bilo kojeg od deset vodećih uzroka smrti.
  • Nada da će genetska istraživanja u buducnosti dovesti do lekova za najteže bolesti ignoriše moćnija rješenja koja se već danas mogu koristiti.
  • Opsesivno kontrolisanje unosa bilo kog nutrijenta, kao što su ugljeni hidrati, masti, holesterol ili omega-3 masti, neće rezultirati dugotrajnim zdravljem.
  • Konzumiranje vitamina, minerala, enzima i drugih veštačkih dodataka ishrani može izazvati trenutno poboljšanje, ali ne pruža trajnu zaštitu od bolesti.
  • Lekovi i hirurške operacije ne izlečuju bolesti koje ubijaju većinu Amerikanaca.


Neka od osnovnih otkrića prezentirana u knjizi "Kineska studija", objavljena u najprestižnijim naučnim časopisima, pokazuju sledeće:

  • Promene u ishrani mogu omogućiti bolesnicima s dijabetesom da prekinu uzimanje lekova.
  • Bolesti srca mogu se reverzirati/preokrenuti samom ishranom.
  • Rak dojke je povezan sa nivoom ženskih hormona u krvi, koje određuje hrana koju jedemo.
  • Konzumiranje mlečne hrane povećava rizik od raka prostate.
  • Antioxidanti, koji se nalaze u voću i povrću, povezani su sa boljim mentalnom kapacitetom u starosti.
  • Kamenje u bubrezima može se sprečiti zdravom ishranom.
  • Dijabetes tipa 1, jedna od najtezih bolesti dece, ubedljivo je povezana s pogrešnom praksom hranjenja odojčadi.


Najjači čovek na svetu hrani se po principima vegan ishrane: Patrik Baboumian. Nije začuđujuće da su najveće i najjače zivotinje na svetu: slonovi, bizoni, nosorozi, nilski konji, gorile, konji, itd. biljojedi, odnosno vegani. Dugačku listu fantastičnih sportista koji koriste biljnu vegan ishranu možete naći na sledećem web-sajtu.

Cela Američka ekipa olimpijaca dizača tegova su vegani (link). Ultra iron-men Rich Roll takođe je vegan. Njegova knjiga je divna inspiracija kako se može blistati u sportskim uspesima baziranim na biljnoj ishrani.

Ove godine izašao je veoma značajan dokumentarni film "What the Health" (Šta je zdravlje) koji možete pogledati na ovom sajtu. U filmu su prikazane šokantne činjenice o zdravlju koje će vas navesti da razmislite o svojoj ishrani i šta jedete.Ovaj najnoviji dokumentarni film analizira korelaciju između ishrane i bolesti, baziranu na milijardama dolara koje se okreću u zdravstvenoj, farmaceutskoj i prehrambenoj industriji. Osnovna ideja potiće od Hipokrata: "Neka hrana bude tvoj lek i neka lek bude tvoja hrana".

U uvodnoj špici reporter intervjuiše Dr. Robert Ratnera, iz Američke Dijabetes Asocijacije (ADA), u kojoj tvrdi da u svetu ima približno 350 miliona ljudi sa dijabetesom. Bez sumnje, mi se nalazimo usred epidemije dijabetesa. U ovom trenutku, svaki treći dolar zdravstvenog osiguranja se troši na lečenje ljudi bolesnih od dijabetesa, a deset posto od ukupnog zdravstvenog novca se troši na dijabetičare. Ovo je očigledno veliki zdravstveni problem.
Reporter dalje postavlja pitanje: zar se ne bi moglo nešto učiniti promenom ishrane? Dr. Ratner: "O tome nemam ništa da kažem" - i razgovor je završen.

Film zapravo počinje revolucionarnim Izveštajem Svetske Zdravstvene Organizacije (W.H.O.) koja je oktobra 2015. objavila najnoviju međunarodnu informaciju o mesu i kanceru, a na osnovu 800 studija iz 10 zemalja (Breaking News, American ABC-channel):

Svi mesni proizvodi (burgeri, viršle, kobasice, salame, šunke, slanina, piletina, riblje konzerve, crveno meso, kao i svi ostali proizvodi koji sadrže meso) sigurno prouzrukuju kancer. W.H.O. izveštaj kaže: konzumiranje 50 grama mesnih proizvoda dnevno povećava rizik od kancera (pretežno debelog creva i rektuma) za 18%, sto je slično riziku kancera prouzrokovanog pušenjem ili radioaktivnim zračenjem. Rezultat je 34 hiljade smrtnih slučajeva godišnje od kancera u Americi. W.H.O. klasifikuje mesne proizvode u prvu grupu kancerogena, zajedno za duvanom, azbestosom i radioaktivnim plutoniumom, dok se crveno meso klasifikuje u drugu grupu kancerogena.

Reporter: "To je kao da sam pušio za vreme celog svog detinjstva, ili kao da deci umesto hrane dajemo cigarete. Kako je to uopste moguće? I ako toga nisam bio svestan, ja sam u stvari jeo mesne proizvode celog svog života, od najranijeg detinjstva i tek sada sam shvatio kako je to opasno. Zašto nas na ovo nikada nije upozorila Američka Kancer Asocijacija (AKA)? Da stvar bude još gora, na njihovom web-sajtu se i dalje preporučuje konzumiranje mesnih proizvoda iz prve grupe kancerogena - čak i posle Izveštaja W.H.O. ? ! !"

Reporter je odmah nazvao AKA i pitao ih zasto se na njihovom web-sajtu preporučuje konzumiranje mesnih proizvoda, koji su prema W.H.O. u prvoj grupi kancerogena, zajedno sa duvanom, azbestosom i radioaktivnim plutoniumom - to je isto kao da se plućnim bolesnicima preporučuje pušenje. Dežurni AKA agent nije bio u stanju da odgovori na ovo pitanje, rekao mu je da bude strpljiv i da čeka. Ipak na kraju mu je zakazan interviju.

U Americi je svaki četrvrti smrtni slučaj prouzrokovan kancerom.

Reporter je otišao na zakazani interviju u AKA, ali kada je tamo došao, rekli su mu da nikakav interviju nije zakazan. On je bio uporan i poslao im je e-mail, pozivajući se na zabeleženi telefonski poziv. AKA agent je u početku odgovorio na e-mail, ali kada je reporter postavio pitanje korelacije kancera i ishrane, svi odgovori su bili prekinuti.

Dakle potpuno je isti rezultat kod Američke Kancer Asocijacije (AKA) kao kod Američke Dijabetes Asocijacije (ADA) - svi razgovori se prekidaju kada se pomene korelacija ishrane i bolesti, uprkos upozorenju Svetske zdravstvene organizacije (W.H.O.). Očigledno, za obe ove institucije, AKA i ADA, ishrana je tabu tema.

Ali reporter je uporan i takođe svestan sve većeg broja eminentnih američkih lekara, koji su otvoreni prema pitanju korelacije ishrane i bolesti u Americi. Ceo film se sastoji iz velikog broja intervjua sa poznatim američkim lekarima, od kojih su monogi autori bestseler knjiga.

Dr. Alan Goldhamer, Osnivač True North Health Centra, autor knjige "Pleasure Trap" kaže: "Dve trečine odraslih muškaraca u Americi ima težinu veću od normalne. Pored toga, imamo epidemiju debilitacionih bolesti koja preplavljuje naciju. Sve ovo je prouzrokovano pogrešnom ishranom, a mi nismo u stanju da sprečimo ove bolesti niti kontrolišemo zdravstvenu situaciju populacije sa ovom pogubnom ishranom."
www.healthpromoting.com/clinic-services/staff/alan-goldhamer-dc

Dr. Joel Kahn, kardiolog, Kahn Center for Cardiac Longevity: "Dijabetes, artritis, srčane bolesti, kanceri, demencija i preterana težina prouzrukuju oko 70 % smrtnih slucajeva u Americi i velikim delom su prouzrokovani pogrešnom ishranom."
drjoelkahn.com/

Dr. Michael Greger, bestseling autor New York Timesa: "Većina dece u Americi već sa deset godina pokazuju znake arterio-skeleroze i preduslove za srčane i moždane udare."
nutritionfacts.org/blog/

Dr. Milton Mills, lekar kritične prakse (Critical Care): "Mi samo tretiramo bolesne ljude, mi ne pokušavamo da sprečimo bolesti - to je u osnovi pogrešno."
preventionofdisease.org/project/milton-mills-md/

Dr. Michelle McMacken, A.Prof.Med., New York University: "Sve hronične bolesti su prouzrokovane pogrešnom ishranom."
plantricianproject.org/plantrician-showcase-1/michelle-mcmacken

Dr. Michael Klaper, lekart opšte prakse i autor: "Uzrok svih hroničnih bolesti je pogrešna ishrana."
doctorklaper.com/

Predviđa se da će kroz tri godine svaki treći Amerikanac biti dijabetičar. Za ovakvo zdravstveno stanje, Američka vlada i medija isključivo okrivljuju konzumiranje sećera i nedostatak fizičkog vežbanja. Da li je to istina? Sudeći po najnovijim istraživanjima - to uopste nije tačno.

Dr. Neal Barnard, Lekarski Komitet za odgovornu Medicinu, klinički istrazivač, autor, predsednik PCRM: "Dijabetes uopšte nije prouzrokovan ishranom sa puno ugljenih hidrata i sećera. Uzrok dijabetesa je ishrana koja povećava količinu masti u krvi. To je tipična ishrana bazirana na mesu i drugim proizvodima životinjskog porekla. Zbog ovakve ishrane, čestice masti pri ulasku u mišićne ćelije prouzrokuju rezistenciju insulina koja onemogućava da šećer uđe u mišićne ćelije (da bi vršio mišićni rad), nego se umesto toga nagomilava u krvi. Prema tome, umesto šećera u mišićne ćelije ulazi mast iz krvi, prouzrokovane ishranom životinjskog porekla, a šećer ostaje u krivi - i to je dijabetes. "Ovo je novo otkriće: dijabetes nije prouzrokovan unosom šećera nego unosom mesa i drugih životinjskih proizvoda.
www.pcrm.org/media/experts/neal-barnard

Dr. Garth Davis, hirurg-pedijatar, specijalista za smanjenje težine, Davis Clinic, potpuno podržava ovo tvrđenje: "Istraživanjem na populaciji od 5 hiljada ljudi potvrđeno je, da je konzumiranje ugljenih hidrata i šećera u negativnoj korelaciji sa dijabetesom: što više ugljenih hidrata, to manje dijabetesa. Ali meso je u jakoj pozitivnoj korelaciji sa dijabetesom. Ovo otkriće je "AHA" momenat u modernoj medicini - ugljeni hidrati nas čine mršavim, a meso nas čini debelim. Kada jedemo ugljene hidrate, oni se ili troše mišićnim radom u vidu potrošenih kalorija ili skladište u mišićima i jetri u obliku glikogena, dakle telo ih ne pretvara u masti. Ali ako jedemo masti, one dirktno postaju masno tkivo, pošto u telu ne postoji posebno skladište za masti. Preterana težina je prolongirana smrtna kazna i velika verovatnoća za kancer, dijabetes i srčane bolesti."
proteinaholic.com/

Dr. Neal Barnard: "Kada jedemo kolače, mi povećavamo rizik za dijabetes, ali ne zbog šećera nego zbog masnih sastojaka životinjskog porekla u tim kolačima (puter, jaja, sira, kajmak i slično)."
www.pcrm.org/media/experts/neal-barnard

Dr. Garth Davis: "Pogrešni fokus na šećer kao uzrok dijabetesa je potpuno skrenuo pažnju javnosti sa pravog uzroka - ishrane mesom, jajima i mlečnim proizvodima."
www.facebook.com/drgarth/

Najnovija istraživanja sa Harvarda poputno potvrđuju ove rezultate vezane za dijabetes.
Dr. Michael Greger: "Kada dete dobije dijabetes, što je u Americi veoma čest slučaj, njemu je oduzeto u proseku 19 godina života."
Dakle, da rezimiramo ovo što je rečeno do sada (prvih 12 minuta filma):
pobijena su dva klasična mita ishrane: prvi, mesni proizvodi najverovatnije prouzrokuju kancer, i drugi, dijabetes nije izazvan šećerom nego mastima životinjskog porekla.

Takodje, knjiga Dr. Colin Campbell-a "The China Study" je epska knjiga o ishrani, gde su bezbrojna dugogodšnja istraživanja pokazala da u delovima Kine, gde ljudi iz ekonomskih razloga nisu u prilici da konzumiraju meso, mlečne proizvode i jaja, uopste ne postoje najteže bolesti kao kancer, diabetes, viskok krvni pritisak, srcane bolesti i artritis:
www.benbellavegan.com/book/the-china-study/

Zasto neki lekari ne preporučuju pacijentima vegansku biljnu ishranu kao lek i prevenciju nego samo pokušavaju da leče bolesti farmakoloskim sredstvima? Razlog je potpuno zapostavljanje predmeta "Ishrana" na medicinskim fakultetima.

Dr. Dr. Kim A. Williams, Predsednik American College of Cardiology : "Ishrana se uopšte ne studira (ili jedva pominje) na medicinskim fakultetima širom sveta. Uzmimo na primer kardiologiju: ni na osnovnim, ni na specijalstičkim, ni na poslediplomskim studijama nema vise od 1-2 časa posvećeni ishrani."

Dr Kim Williams daje predlog lekarima da se edukuju po pitanju ishrane i prevencije bolesti današnjice preko organizacije "The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine", gde se mogu naći informacije, kursevi i 30 dana "kick start"- početak za vegansku zdravu biljnu hranu. Ovo je njihov web-sajt: www.pcrm.org/

Pored poznatih lekara koji zastupaju prevenciju i lečenje bolesti biljnom ishranom, tu su i poznate ličnosti "vegani":

Brendan Brazier nekadašnji Irontman triatlonac i dva puta šampion Kanadskog 50 km ultramaratona,
www.brendanbrazier.com/

Dr. Dean Ornish, medicinski savetnik bivšeg američkog predsednika Obame
deanornish.com/

Marilu Henner, bestseler pisac
www.marilu.com/

Alicia Silverstone, glumica, biznismenka i bestseling pisac
thekindlife.com/

Nema boljeg objasnjenja o vegan biljnoj ishrani nego na sajtu Gary Francione-a, Profesora sa Američkog Rutgers Univerziteta. Navodimo nekoliko njegovih najvažnijih misli o vegan biljnoj ishrani i životinjskim pravima ( pravima životinja). Ukoliko želite više da saznate, Profesor Gary Francione ima dva sajta, jedan na kome su njegove ideje iz objavljenih knjiga i predavanja:
www.abolitionistapproach.com/ i drugi koji je detaljni sajt sa mogućnošću mentorstva kako postati i ostati "vegan":
www.howdoigovegan.com/

"Zivotinjska Prava: Abolicionistički Pristup po zapisima profesora Gary Francione-a. Postanimo "vegani i veganke"! a pokret o veganskoj i biljnoj ishrani znači da potpuno prestanemo da jedemo, ili na bilo koji drugi način koristimo, proizvode životinjskog porekla.
Vegan biljna ishrana nije žrtva nego radost. Isto kao i ljudi, i životinje su potpuno svesna bića koja vole život i osećaju radost, patnju i bol.

Neophodno je da shvatimo da su životinje najugroženija i najranjivija živa bića naeše planete Zemlje. Kada to shvatimo i potpuno prihvatimo, videćemo da postati "vegan ili veganka" uopšte nije teško, i da se tu ne radi o nama i našem životnom opredelenju , nego o životinjama i njihovim životnim izborima.

Isto kao što svuda u svetu postoje ljudska prava, treba da postoje i životinjska prava. Isto kao što zanemarivanje i srozavanje ljudskih prava čini osnovu eksploatacije, rasizma, nasilništva i genocida, tako i zanemarivanje i srozavanje životinjskih prava čini osnovu naše nehumanosti.
U osnovi ideje o vegan biljnoj ishrani je nenasilje. Isto kao što smo prihvatili nenasilje prema ljudima kao osnovu današnje ljudske kulture i civilizacije, treba da prihavitimo i nenasilje prema životinjama kao osnovu plemenitije buduće kulture i civilizacije.

Većina životinja ubija se zbog hrane. Prema podacima Organizacije za prehranu i poljoprivredu Ujedinjenih Nacija (FAO), ljudi godišnje ubijaju oko 53 milijarde (53.000,000.000) životinja, gde nisu ubrojene ribe i druge morske životinje koje se mere milionima tona. Pokret vegan biljne ishrane podrazumeva i da se zaustavi ovaj svakodnevni genocid nad životinjama.

Nema bitne razlike između konzumiranja mesa i mlečnih ili drugih životinjskih proizvoda. Sa životinjama koje se eksploatišu za mlečne proizvode, jaja ili druge proizvode postupa se jednako loše, ako ne i gore. Potrebno je da shvatimo da ista količina patnje i smrti kao u komadu mesa postoji i u svakoj čaši mleka, kuglici sladoleda ili jajetu.

Vegan biljna ishrana smanjuje potražnju za životinjskim proizvodima i time smanjuje patnju i smrt životinja. Ono predstavlja odbijanje statusa životinja kao robe i naše prepoznavanje njihove imanentne vrednosti kao svesnih i ravnopravnih živih bića.

Vegan biljna ishrana se ne svodi samo na plemeniti način ishrane. Ona je naša moralna obveza da se prekine bilo kakva eksploatacija životinja i nije ograničena samo na ishranu već se proteže i na odeću, kao i na sve druge proizvode životinjskog porekla. Ako prekinemo ili bar smanjimo tu nemoralnu potražnju, smanjiće se eksploatacija i genocid nad životinjama i smrt miliona ljudi obolelih od karcinoma, šećerne bolesti, artritisa i bezbroj ostalih zdravstvenih problema.

Vegan biljna ishrana je obaveza za nenasilje. Ovaj svetski pokret za životinjska prava je pokret mira koji odbacuje nasilje prema svim životinjama, kako ljudskim tako i neljudskim.
Pokret vegan biljne ishrane je jedan od važnih oblika političkog aktivizma koji možemo učiniti za ljude i za životinje. To je ono što možemo ostvariti danas, u ovom trenutku, da bismo pomogli ovim nesrećnim bićima koja isto kao i mi vole život i osecaju radost, ushićenje, bol i patnju.

Veganski pokret je neophodan preduslov za prestanak eksploatacije životinja. Taj pokret počinje odlukom svakog pojedinca. Sve dok više od 99% ljudi misli da je prihvatljivo konzumirati životinjske proizvode, za životinje se ništa bitno neće promijeniti, a ljudi će zbog toga sve više patiti i umirati. Dakle, odluka je na vama. Ovu odluku niko ne može doneti u vaše ime.
Pridružite se abolicionističkom pokretu i zaštiti prava životinja. Postanite vegan/veganka. Danas. To je jednostavno. To je ispravna odluka. To je odluka vašeg opstanka.

Kako se uništava planeta:

  • Prema Organizaciji za Prehranu i poljoprivredu Ujedinjenih Nacija (FAO), samo stočarstvo stvara više štetnih gasova nego upotreba fosilnih goriva u automobilima i ostalim vozilima.
  • Na stočnu proizvodnju odlazi 30 % kopna na zemlji, uključujući 33% svetske obradive zemlje koja se upotrebljava za proizvodnju stočne hrane.
  • Potrebe stočarstva za pašnjacima i poljima za stočnu hranu su sve veće, zbog čega dolazi do krčenja šuma te rasprostranjene degradacije, zbijenosti i erozije zemlje zbog prekomerne ispaše.
  • Stočarstvo predstavlja opasnost smanjivanja svetskih zaliha pitke vode. Velike količine vode potrebne su za proizvodnju stočne hrane, prekomerna ispaša ometa prirodne vodene cikluse, a stočarstvo je i bitan uzrok polucije vode.
  • Životinje konzumiraju više proteina nego što ih proizvode. Za svaki proizvedeni kilogram životinjskih proteina životinje u proseku konzumiraju skoro šest kilograma biljnih proteina u žitaricama.
  • Za svaki proizvedeni kilogram govedine potrebno je više od 100.000 litara vode. Kao poredjenje, za proizvodnju jednog kilograma pšenice potrebno je oko 900 litara vode." - ovo su prepričani delovi knjiga Gary Francione-a.
  • Za dodatne informacije posetite "The Abolitionist Approach" na:
    www.AbolitionistApproach.com


Ako postanete "vegan-veganka" spasićete 12 hiljada zivotinja, koliko se u proseku ubije za jedan ljudski vek.

Ako i posle svega ovoga ne želite da budete vegan-veganka, pogledajte filmove:

  1. "Earthlings" film vođen glasom šarmantnog glumca vegana Joaquin Phoenix-a koji nam daje poruku - Postani mir, postani biljojed. - Be the Peace - Be a Plant-Based Being!

    Ovaj film je klasifikovan u horor filmove, iako je snimljen samo mali deo patnje koju mi činimo zivotinjama, i to se sve dešava sada - svake godine se nepotrebno ubije oko 53 milijarde (53.000,000.000) životinja, ne računjajući vodene životinje čije se ubijanje meri milionima tona. Često se pitamo na kakvoj to planeti zivimo? Mogla bi da bude raj i za čoveka i za životinje, a u stvari to je pakao. U svakom slučaju spremite maramice i pogledajte ovaj film. Ovo je oficijelni sajt gde ga mozete pogledati:
    www.nationearth.com/earthlings-1/

    Ukoliko ne možete da izdržite da do kraja odgledate ovaj film, a niste vegani, zapitajte se? Ako oči ne mogu da izdrže takvo nasilje, kako vaš stomak može da svari leševe tih životinja. Naša tela su stvorena da budu hramovi dobrote, zdravlja i sreće, a ne grobnice životinja. To ljudi ne mogu postići današnjim načinom života i neljudskim odnosom prema ostalim živim bićima na zajedničkoj nam planeti.

    Nije tačno da ljudi duže žive sada nego ranijih godina, ispravnije je reci da ljudi duže pate od hroničnih bolesti koje pomeraju granice i napadju sve mladje i mladje osobe.

    Ljudi današnjice žive u matrici stresa i bolesti, uništavajući ovu divnu planetu, zbog sopstvene sebičnosti (proždrljivosti) i najviše velikih korporacija mesne i mlečne industrije.

  2. Drugi film koji mozete pogledati je "From Farm to Fridge" ili Sa farme do frižidera. Ovo je link filma:
    freefromharm.org/farm-animal-welfare/the-new-documentary-short-from-farm-to-fridge-presents-the-problem-and-solution-to-factory-farming/


Ovaj deo teksta, koji sledi, o samilosti prema ostalim živim bićima na našoj nesrećnoj planeti Zemlji je deo bogate biografije Prof. Lava Đorđevića, našeg olimpijca i pisca velikog broja naučnih radova i knjiga objavljenih u izdavačkoj kući Springer. Ovo je njegova potresna priča o nepravdi i gluposti ljudskog roda:
Kao dečak za vreme raspusta boravio sam na selu i uživao u flori i fauni i gostoprimstvu seljana kod kojih sam boravio. To ushićenje trajalo je do trenutka kada sam video i shvatio kako nastaju kobasice, šnicle, viršle, parizeri, šunke i salame. Užasavao sam se prizora klanja jagnjadi, prasića i jarića sa kojima sam se do juče igrao, glio i mazio. Vrhunac užasa doživeo sam kada sam na stolu video mog ljubimca ispečenog sa jabukom i ustima. U toku gozbe tepali su im: jagnjence, prasence, jarence, medeni, slatki...Tada sam shvatio da samo čovek može da kolje, ubija i ždere bez mržnje, rutinski i bez emocija. Kasnije u drugom svetskom ratu bio sam svedok istog ponašanja, ovog puta cilj ubijanja i klanja bili su ljudi. Sa 12 godina shvatio sam da je većina ljudske vrste nesavršena, cinična i beskrajno nehumana prema živim bićima oko sebe i pre svega prema sebi samim. Naravoučenije: biti ili ne biti pitanje je sad ? Vegan biljna ishrana ili fizičko i moralno samouništenje.

I naravno ako postanete vegani život svima na Zemlji može da bude mnogo lepši. Pokret vegan biljne ishrane je jedini pravi odgovor za opstanak našeg naroda i svih ljudi na svetu.

Elem, da završimo ovu priču sa najsladjim delom vegan ishrane Nicecream-om koji je zamena sladoleda. Dobio je naziv "nice", sto znači "lep" jer za njegovu pripremu ne upotrebljavamo mleko životinjskog porekla, Za Nicecream je potrebno samo nekoliko zamrznutih banana i onda to pomešajte sa voćem koje volite.

Dato je nekoliko slika u prilogu, sa instangrama.

Za veganske primere ishrane možete pogledati neki od ovih instagram kanala:

  • https://www.instagram.com/artrawpaulina/?hl=en
  • https://www.instagram.com/buddha_bowls/?hl=en
  • https://www.instagram.com/thrivemags/?hl=en
  • https://www.instagram.com/veganbowls/?hl=en
  • https://www.instagram.com/vincentjguihan/?hl=en
  • https://www.instagram.com/5th.density/?hl=en


Nicecream od kupine (samo se izmute zaleđene banane i kupine).
Nicecream od kupine (samo se izmute zaleđene banane i kupine).


Ananas nicecream (zaleđeni ananas i banane sa malim prelivom od kakao-a i prelivom od javorovog sirupa).
Ananas nicecream (zaleđeni ananas i banane sa malim prelivom od kakao-a i prelivom od javorovog sirupa).


NiceCream od jagoda
Nicecream od jagoda sa instagrama, gde možete naći i mnoge druge kreacije ove talentovane veganke


Evo nekoliko primera zdravog veganskog obroka:

plavi patlidzan


Plavi patlidžan (pečen sa belim lukom, malo soli i bosiljkom), pečurke ispržene u tamari sosu sa kremom (izmiksano sojino mleko, tahini, so, kumin, beli luk i peršun) sa puno povrća: zelena salata, kale, bele i crvene rotkvice, paradajz, ruža od avokada, krastavac, kelj i asparagagus. I nemojte zaboraviti da dodate ljubav.

peceni krompir slatki krompir


Pečeni krompir i slatki krompir, pasulj sa misom i humusom, kukuruz, zelena salata, kale, paradajz, krastavac, maslnke, šargarepa, peršun i ljubav (za sebe, za planetu i za životinje).

tikvice i krem


Tikvice i krem (izmiksano sojino ili bademovo mleko sa indijskim orasima sa malo soli, prokuvanim keljom, spanaćem, graškom, bazilom i origanom) i pečurke ispržene u tamari sosu i naravno puno povrća.

Quo vadis Srbijo!

Kineska studija (The China Study)
Dr. Colin Campbell i Mr. Thomas Campbell



[h2]Reference[/h2]

Reference na kojima se zasniva knjiga "Kineska studija"

Chapter 1: Problems We Face, Solutions We Need / Problemi s kojima se suočavamo, potrebna rešenja.

  1. American Cancer Society. "Cancer Facts and Figures-1998." Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 1998.
  2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, et al. "Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2000."JAMA 288 (2002): 1723-1727.
  3. National Center for Health Statistics. "Obesity still on the rise, new data show. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services News Release." October 10, 2003. Washington, DC: 2002. Accessed at www.cdc.govnchsireleasesl02newsiobesityonrise.htm
  4. Lin B-H, GuthrieJ, and Frazao E. "Nutrient Contribution of Food Away from Home." In: E. Frazao (ed.), Americas Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA, 1999. Cited on p. 138 in: Information Plus. Nutrition: a hey to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
  5. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. "Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990-1998." Diabetes Care 23 (2000): 1278-1283.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "National Diabetes Fact Sheet: National Estimates and General Information on Diabetes in the United States, Revised Edition." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998.
  7. American Diabetes Association. "Economic consequences of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. in 1997." Diabetes Care 21 (1998): 296-309. Cited In: Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. "Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990-1998." Diabetes Care 23 (2000): 1278-1283.
  8. American Heart Association. "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2003 Update." Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, 2002.
  9. Omish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?" Lancet 336 (1990): 129-133.
  10. Esselstyn CB, Ellis SG, Medendorp Sv, et al. "A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician's practice." J. Family Practice 41 (1995): 560-568.
  11. Starfield B. "Is U.S. health really the best in the world?" JAMA 284 (2000): 483-485.
  12. Anderson RN. "Deaths: leading causes for 2000." National Vital Statistics Reports 50(16) (2002):
  13. Phillips D, Christenfeld N, and Glynn L "Increase in U.s. medication-error death between 1983 and 1993." Lancet 351 (1998): 643-644.
  14. U.s. Congressional House Subcommittee Oversight Investigation. "Cost and quality of health care: unnecessary surgery." Washington, DC: 1976. Cited by: Leape, L. "Unnecessary surgery." Ann. Rev. Publ. Health 13 (1992): 363-383.
  15. Lazarou j, Pomeranz B, and Corey PN. "Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients." JAMA 279 (1998): 1200-1205.
  16. World Health Organization. Technical Report Series No. 425. "International Drug Monitoring: the Role of the Hospital." Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1966.
  17. Health Insurance Association of America. Source Book of Health Insurance Data: 1999-2000. Washington, DC, 1999.
  18. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2000 with Adolescent Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2000.
  19. Star field B. Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  20. World Health Organization. World Health Report 2000: Press release. "World Health Organization assesses the world's health systems." June 21, 2000. Geneva. Accessed at http: Ilwww.who.int
  21. Coble YD. American Medical Association press release. "AMA decries rise in number of uninsured Americans." September 30, 2003. Chicago, IL. Accessed at www.ama-assn.org! amalpub/articlel1617-8064.html
  22. Campbell TC. "Present day knowledge on aflatoxin." PhilJ Nutr 20 (1967): 193-201.
  23. Campbell TC, Caedojp'jr., Bulatao-jaymej, et al. "Aflatoxin M, in human urine." Nature 227 (1970): 403-404.
  24. This program was conducted in collaboration with the Philippine Department of Health and was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). USAID paid my full salary for six years and resulted in 110 "mother craft centers" distributed around much of the Philippines. Progress on this contract was prepared as monthly reports to USAID by Associate Dean C.W Engel at Virginia Tech.
  25. Huj, Zhao X,jiaj, et al. "Dietary calcium and bone density among middle-aged and elderly women in China." Am.). Clin. Nutr. 58 (1993): 219-227.
  26. Huj, Zhao X, Parpia B, et al. "Dietary intakes and urinary excretion of calcium and acids: a cross-sectional study of women in China." Am.). Clin. Nutr. 58 (1993): 398-406.
  27. Huj, Zhao X, Parpia B, et al. "Assessment of a modified household food weighing method in a study of bone health in China." European). Clin. Nutr. 48 (1994): 442-452.
  28. Potischman N, McCulloch CE, Byers T, et al. "Breast cancer and dietary and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin A." Am.). Clin. Nutr. 52 (1990): 909-915.
  29. Potischman N, McCulloch CE, Byers T, et al. "Associations between breast cancer, triglycerides and cholesterol." Nutr. Cancer 15 (1991): 205-215.
  30. Chenj, Campbell TC, Lij, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
  31. Campbell TC, and ChenJ. "Diet and chronic degenerative diseases:perspectives from China." Am.). Clin. Nutr. 59 (Suppl.) (1994): 11535-11615.
  32. Campbell TC. "The dietary causes of degenerative diseases: nutrients vs foods." In: N. J. Temple and D. P. Burkitt (eds.), Western diseases: their dietary prevention and reversibility, pp. 119-152. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1994.
  33. Campbell TC, and Chen J. "Diet and chronic degenerative diseases: a summary of results from an ecologic study in rural China." In: N. J. Temple and D. P. Burkitt (eds.), Western diseases: their dietary prevention and reversibility, pp. 67-118. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1994.
  34. Chittenden RH. Physiological economy in nutrition. New York: EA. Stokes, 1904.
  35. Chittenden RH. The nutrition of man. New York: E A. Stokes, 1907.


Chapter 2: A House of Proteins / Kuca proteina

  1. Stillings BR. "World supplies of animal protein." In: J. W. G. Porter and B. A. Rolls (eds.), Proteins in Human Nutrition, pp. 11- 33. London: Academic Press, 1973.
  2. Campbell TC, Warner RG, and LoosliJK. "Urea and biuret for ruminants." In: Cornell Nutrition Conference, Buffalo, NY, 1960, pp. 96-103.
  3. Campbell TC, Loosli JK, Warner RG, et al. "Utilization of biuret by ruminants." J. Animal Science 22 (1963): 139-145.
  4. Autret M. "World protein supplies and needs. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Easter School in Agricultural Science, University of Nottingham, 1969." In: R. A. Laurie (ed.), Proteins in Human Food, pp. 3-19. Westport, CT.: Avi Publishing Company, 1970.
  5. Scrimshaw NS, and Young VR. "Nutritional evaluation and the utilization of protein resources." In: C. E. Bodwell (ed.), Evaluation of Proteins for Humans, pp. 1-10. Westport, CT: The Avi Publishing Co., 1976.
  6. Jalil ME, and Tahir WM. "World supplies of plant proteins." In:J. W. G. Porter and B. A. Rolls (eds.), Proteins in Human Nutrition, pp. 35-46. London: Academic Press, 1973.
  7. Blount WP. "Turkey "X" Disease." Turkeys 9 (1961): 52, 55-58, 61, 77.
  8. Sargeant K, Sheridan A, O'Kelly J, et al. "Toxicity associated with certain samples of groundnuts." Nature 192 (1961): 1096-1097.
  9. Lancaster MC,Jenkins FP, and PhilpJM. "Toxicity associated with certain samples of groundnuts." Nature 192 (1961): 1095-1096.
  10. Wogan GN, and Newberne PM. "Dose-response characteristics of aflatoxin B, carcinogenesis in the rat." Cancer Res. 27 (1967): 2370-2376.
  11. Wogan GN, Paglialunga S, and Newberne PM. "Carcinogenic effects of low dietary levels of aflatoxin Bl in rats." Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12 (1974): 681-685.
  12. Campbell TC, Caedo JP,Jr., Bulatao-Jayme J, et al. "Aflatoxin M, in human urine." Nature 227 (1970): 403-404.
  13. Madhavan TV, and Gopalan C. "The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin." Arch. Path. 85 (1968): 133-137.


Chapter 3: Turning Off Cancer / Iskljucivanje raka

  1. Natural Resources Defense Council. "Intolerable risk: pesticides in our children's food." New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, February 27, 1989.
  2. Winter C, Craigmill A, and Stimmann M. "Food Safety Issues II. NRDC report and Alar." UC Davis Environmental Toxicology Newsletter 9(2) (1989):
  3. 3. Lieberman AJ, and Kwon Sc. "Fact versus fears: a review of the greatest unfounded health scares ofrecent times." New York: American Council on Science and Health,June, 1998.
  4. Whelan EM, and Stare FJ. Panic in thepantry:facts and fallacies about thefoodyou buy. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1992.
  5. U.S. Apple Association. "News release: synopsis of U.s. Apple Press Conference." McLean, VA: U.S. Apple Association, February 25, 1999.
  6. Cassens RG. Nitrite-cured meat: a food safety issue in perspective. Trumbull, CT: Food and Nutrition Press, Inc., 1990.
  7. Lijinsky W, and Epstein SS. "Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens." Nature 225 (1970): 21-23.
  8. National Toxicology Program. "Ninth report on carcinogens, revised January 2001." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, January, 2001. Accessed at ehis.niehs.nih.gov/rodtoc9.html#Viewe
  9. International Agency for Cancer Research. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans: Some N-Nitroso Compounds. Vol. 17 Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1978.
  10. Druckrey H, Janzowski R, and Preussmann R. "Organotrope carcinogene wirkungen bei 65 verschiedenen N-nitroso-verbindungen an BD-ratten." Z. Krebsforsch. 69 (1967): 103-201.
  11. Thomas C, and So BT. "Zur morphologie der durch N-nitroso-verbindungen erzeugten tumoren im oberen verdauungstrakt der ratte." Arzneimitte/forsch. 19 (1969): 1077-1091.
  12. Eisenbrand G, Spiegelhalder B, Janzowski C, et al. "Volatile and non-volatile N-nitroso compounds in foods and other environmental media." [ARC Sci. Publi. 19 (1978): 311-324.
  13. National Archives and Records Administration. "Code of Federal Regulations: Title 9, Animals and Animal Products, Section 319.180 (9CFR319.180)." Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001.
  14. Kanfer S. October 2, 1972. "The decline and fall of the American hot dog." Time:
  15. 15. Newberne P. "Nitrite promotes lymphoma incidence in rats." Science 204 (1979): 1079-1081.
  16. Madhavan TV, and Gopalan C. "The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin." Arch. Path. 85 (1968): 133-137.
  17. If this defect becomes part of the first round of daughter cells, then this will be passed on to all subsequent generations of cells, with the potential to eventually become clinically detectable cancer. However, this is an oversimplification of a very complex process. Perhaps two of the more Significant omissions are the hypotheses that 1) more than one mutation may be required to initiate and promote cancer, and 2) not all genetic defects result in cancer.
  18. Mgbodile MUK, and Campbell TC. "Effect of protein deprivation of male weanling rats on the kinetics of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity."}. Nutr. 102 (1972): 53-60.
  19. HayesJR, Mgbodile MUK, and Campbell TC. "Effect of protein deficiency on the inducibility of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system. I. Effect on substrate interaction with cytochrome P-450." Biochem. Pharmacal. 22 (1973): 1005-1014.
  20. Mgbodile MUK, Hayes JR, and Campbell TC. "Effect of protein deficiency on the inducibility of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system. II. Effect on enzyme kinetics and electron transport system." Biochem. Pharmacal. 22 (1973): 1125-1132.
  21. Hayes JR, and Campbell TC. "Effect of protein deficiency on the inducibility of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system. III. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene induction on activity and binding kinetics." Biochem. Pharmacal. 23 (1974): 1721-1732.
  22. Campbell TC. "Influence of nutrition on metabolism of carcinogens (Martha Maso Honor's Thesis)." Adv. Nutr. Res. 2 (1979): 29-55.
  23. Preston RS, Hayes JR, and Campbell TC. "The effect of protein deficiency on the in vivo binding of aflatoxin Bj to rat liver macromolecules." Life Sci. 19 (1976): 1191-1198.
  24. Portman RS, Plowman KM, and Campbell TC. "On mechanisms affecting species susceptibility to aflatoxin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta 208 (1970): 487-495.
  25. Prince LO, and Campbell TC. "Effects of sex difference and dietary protein level on the binding of aflatoxin B[ to rat liver chromatin proteins in vivo." Cancer Res. 42 (1982): 5053-5059.
  26. Mainigi KD, and Campbell TC. "Subcellular distribution and covalent binding of alfatoxins as functions of dietary manipulation."J Toxical. Eviron. Health 6 (1980): 659-671.
  27. Nerurkar LS, HayesJR, and Campbell TC. "The reconstitution of hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase activity with fractions derived from weanling rats fed different levels of protein."}. Nutr. 108 (1978): 678-686.
  28. Gurtoo HL, and Campbell TC. "A kinetic approach to a study of the induction of rat liver microsomal hydroxylase after pretreatment with 3,4-benzpyrene and aflatoxin B[." Biochem. Pharmacal. 19 (1970): 1729-1735.
  29. Adekunle AA, HayesJR, and Campbell TC. "Interrelationships of dietary protein level, aflatoxin B[ metabolism, and hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrase activity." Life Sci. 21 (1977):1785-1792.
  30. Mainigi KD, and Campbell Te. "Effects of low dietary protein and dietary aflatoxin on hepatic glutathione levels in F-344 rats." Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 59 (1981): 196-203.
  31. Farber E, and Cameron R. "The sequential analysis of cancer development." Adv. Cancer Res. 31 (1980): 125-226.
  32. Foci response for the various charts in this chapter mostly reflect "% of liver volume," which integrates "number of foci" and "size of foci," both of which indicate tumor-forming tendency. So that the responses from individual experiments can be compared among each other, the data are adjusted to a common scale that reflects the response produced by a standard dose of aflatoxin and by feeding a 20% protein diet.
  33. Appleton BS, and Campbell Te. "Inhibition of aflatoxin-initiated preneoplastic liver lesions by low dietary protein." Nutr. Cancer 3 (1982): 200-206.
  34. Dunaif GE, and Campbell Te. "Relative contribution of dietary protein level and Aflatoxin B) dose in generation of presumptive preneoplastic foci in rat liver." J. Natl. Cancer Ins1. 78 (1987): 365-369.
  35. Youngman LD, and Campbell Te. "High protein intake promotes the growth of preneoplastic foci in Fischer #344 rats: evidence that early remodeled foci retain the potential for future growth." J' Nulr.121 (1991): 1454-1461.
  36. Youngman LD, and Campbell Te. "Inhibition of aflatoxin Bl-induced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) hepatic preneoplastic foci and tumors by low protein diets: evidence that altered GGT+ foci indicate neoplastic potential." Carcinogenesis 13 (1992): 1607-1613.
  37. Dunaif GE, and Campbell Te. "Dietary protein level and aflatoxin Bl-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in the rat." J. Nutr. 117 (1987): 1298-1302.
  38. Horio F, Youngman LD, Bell RC, et al. "Thermogenesis, low-protein diets, and decreased development of AFBl-induced preneoplastic foci in rat liver." Nutr. Cancer 16 (1991): 31-41.
  39. About 12% dietary protein is required to maximize growth rate, according to the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences.
  40. Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition. Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals. Second revised edition, number
  41. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1972. 41 . National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances. Tenth edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
  42. Schulsinger DA, Root MM, and Campbell Te. "Effect of dietary protein quality on development of aflatoxin Bl-induced hepatic preneoplastic lesions." J' Natl. Cancer Inst. 81 (1989): 1241-1245.
  43. Youngman LD. The growth and development of aflatoxin Bl-induced preneoplastic lesions, tumors, metastasis, and spontaneous tumors as they are influenced by dietary protein level, type, and intervention. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Ph.D. Thesis, 1990.
  44. Beasley RP. "Hepatitis B virus as the etiologic agent in hepatocellular carcinoma-epidemiologic considerations." Hepatol. 2 (1982): 215-265.
  45. Blumberg BS, Larouze B, London WT, et al. "The relation of infection with the hepatitis B agent to primary hepatic carcinoma." Am.J. Pathol. 81 (1975): 669-682.
  46. Chisari FY, Ferrari C, and Mondelli MU. "Hepatitis B virus structure and biology." Microbiol. Pathol. 6 (1989): 311-325.
  47. Hu j, Cheng Z, Chisari FY, et al. "Repression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgene and HBVinduced liver injury by low protein diet." Oncogene 15 (1997): 2795-2801.
  48. Cheng Z, Huj, Kingj, et al. "Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma development in hepatitis B virus transfected mice by low dietary casein." Hepatology 26 (1997): 1351-1354.
  49. Hawrylewicz Ej, Huang HH, KissanejQ, et al. "Enhancement of the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a nthracene (DMBA) mammary tumorigenesis by high dietary protein in rats." Nutr. Reps. Int. 26 (1982): 793-806.
  50. Hawrylewicz EJ. "Fat-protein interaction, defined 2-generation studies." In: C. Ip, D. F. Birt, A. E. Rogers and C. Mettlin (eds.), Dietary fat and cancer, pp. 403-434. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1986.
  51. Huang HH, Hawrylewicz EJ, Kissane JQ, et al. "Effect of protein diet on release of prolactin and ovarian steroids in female rats." Nutr. Rpts. Int. 26 (1982): 807-820.
  52. O'Connor TP, Roebuck BD, and Campbell TC. "Dietary intervention during the post-dosing phase of L-azaserine-induced preneoplastic lesions." J Natl Cancer Inst 75 (1985): 955-957.
  53. O'Connor TP, Roebuck BD, Peterson F, et al. "Effect of dietary intake of fish oil and fish protein on the development of L-azaserine-induced preneoplastic lesions in rat pancreas." J Nat! Cancer 1nst 75 (1985): 959-962.
  54. He Y. Effects of carotenoids and dietary carotenoid extracts on aflatoxin B,-induced mutagenesis and hepatocarcinogenesis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, PhD Thesis, 1990.
  55. He Y, and Campbell TC. "Effects of carotenoids on aflatoxin BI-induced mutagenesis in S. typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98." Nutr. Cancer 13 (1990): 243-253.


Chapter 4: Lessons from China: Lekcije iz Kine

  1. LiJ-Y, Liu B-Q, Li G-Y, et al. "Atlas of cancer mortality in the People's Republic of China. An aid for cancer control and research." Int. J. Epid. 10 (1981): 127-133.
  2. HigginsonJ. "Present trends in cancer epidemiology." Proc. Can. Cancer Conf. 8 (1969): 40-75.
  3. Wynder EL, and Gori GB. "Contribution of the environment to cancer incidence: an epidemiologic exercise." J. Nat!. Cancer 1nst. 58 (1977): 825-832.
  4. Doll R, and Peto R. "The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the Unites States today." J Nat! Cancer Inst 66 (1981): 1192-1265.
  5. Fagin D. News release. "Breast cancer cause still elusive study: no clear link between pollution, breast cancer on Ll." August 6, 2002. Newsday.com.
  6. There were 82 mortality rates, but about a third of these rates were duplicates of the same disease for different aged people.
  7. Calorie intake in China is for a 65 kg adult male doing "light physical work." Comparable data for the American male is adjusted for a body weight of 65 kg.
  8. SerVaas C. "Diets that protected against cancers in China." The Saturday Evening Post October 1990: 26-28.
  9. All the available disease mortality rates were arranged in a matrix so that it was possible to readily determine the relationship of each rate with every other rate. Each comparison was then assigned a plus or minus, depending on whether they were directly or inversely correlated. All plus correlations were assembled in one list and all minus correlations were assembled in a second list. Each individual entry in either list was therefore positively related to entries in its own list but inversely related to diseases in the opposite list. Most, but not all, of these correlations were statistically Significant.
  10. Campbell TC, ChenJ, Brun T, et al. ' China: from diseases of poverty to diseases of affluence. Policy implications of the epidemiological transition." Ecol. Food Nutr. 27 (1992): 133-144.
  11. ChenJ, Campbell TC, LiJ, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
  12. Lipid Research Clinics Program Epidemiology Committee. "Plasma lipid distributions in selected North American Population. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study." Circulation 60 (1979): 427-439.
  13. Campbell TC, Parpia B, and ChenJ. "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: The Cornell China Study." Am. J. Cardio!. 82 (1998): 18T-21T.
  14. These data are for villages SA, LC and RA for women and SA, QC and NB for men, as seen in the monograph (Chen, et al. 1990)
  15. Sirtori CR, Noseda G, and Descovich Gc. "Studies on the use of a soybean protein diet for the management of human hyperlipoproteinemias." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Volume 8: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis., pp. 135-148. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
  16. Carroll KK. "Dietary proteins and amino acids---their effects on cholesterol metabolism." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis, pp. 9-17. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
  17. Terpstra AHM, Hermus R.n, and West CEo "Dietary protein and cholesterol metabolism in rabbits and rats." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.) , Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Athersclerosis, pp. 19-49. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
  18. Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Czarnecki SK, et al. "Atherogenicity of animal and vegetable protein. Influence of the lysine to arginine ratio." Atherosclerosis 41 (1982): 429-431.
  19. Dietary fat can be expressed as percent of total weight of the diet or as percent of total calories. Most commentators and researchers express fat as percent of total calories because we primarily consume food to satisfy our need for calories, not our need for weight. I will do the same throughout this book.
  20. National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
  21. United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General~ Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: Superintendant of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
  22. National Research Council, and Committee on Diet and Health. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
  23. Expert Panel. Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer, a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund, 1997.
  24. Exceptions include those foods artificially stripped of their fat, such as non-fat milk.
  25. Armstrong D, and Doll R. "Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices," Int. J. Cancer 15 (1975): 617-631.
  26. U.S. Senate. "Dietary goals for the United States, 2nd Edition." Washington, DC: U.s. Government Printing Office, 1977.
  27. Committee on Diet Nutrition and Cancer. Diet, nutrition and cancer: directions for research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983.
  28. There also were a number of other policy statements and large human studies that were begun at about this time that were to receive much public discussion and that were founded and/or interpreted in relation to dietary fat and these diseases. These included the initiation of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines report series begun in 1980, the Harvard Nurses' Health Study in 1984, the initial reports of the Framingham Heart Study in the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study of Ancel Keys, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) and others.
  29. Carroll KK, Braden LM, BellJA, et al. "Fat and cancer." Cancer 58 (1986): 1818--1825.
  30. Drasar BS, and Irving D. "Environmental factors and cancer of the colon and breast." Br.J. Cancer 27 (1973): 167-172.
  31. Haenszel W, and Kurihara M. "Studies ofjapanese Migrants: mortality from cancer and other disease among Japanese and the United States."J Natl Cancer Inst 40 (1968): 43-68.
  32. Higginson 1, and Muir CS. "Epidemiology in Cancer." In: J. F Holland and E. Frei (eds.), Cancer Medicine, pp. 241-306. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1973.
  33. The correlation of fat intake with animal protein intake is 84% for grams of fat consumed and 70% for fat as a percent of calories.
  34. Kelsey jL, Gammon MD, and Esther MJ. "Reproductive factors and breast cancer." Epidemiol. Revs. 15 (1993): 36-47.
  35. de Stavola BL, Wang DY, Allen DS, et al. "The association of height, weight, menstrual and reproductive events with breast cancer: results from two prospective studies on the island of Guernsey (United Kingdom)." Cancer Causes and Control 4 (1993) : 331-340.
  36. Rautalahti M, Albanes D, Virtamo j, et al. "Lifetime menstrual activity-indicator of breast cancer risk." (1993): 17-25
  37. It was not possible to statistically detect an association of blood hormone levels with breast cancer risk within this group of women because their blood samples were taken at random times of their menstrual cycles and breast cancer rates were so low, thus minimizing the ability to detect such an association, even when real.
  38. Key TjA, Chenj, Wang DY, et al. "Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain." Brit.}. Cancer 62 (1990): 631-636.
  39. These biomarkers include plasma copper, urea nitrogen, estradiol, prolactin, testosterone and, inversely, sex hormone binding globulin, each of which has been known to be associated with animal protein intake from previous studies.
  40. For the total dietary fiber (TDF), the averages for China and the u.s. were 33.3 and 11.1 grams per day, respectively. The range of the county averages are 7.7-77.6 grams per day in China, compared with a range of 2.4-26.6 grams per day for the middle 90% of American males.
  41. The correlation for plant protein was +0.53*** and for animal protein was +0.12.
  42. In principle, using "cancer prevalence within families" as the outcome measurement more effectively controls for the various causes of cancer that associate with different kinds of cancer, thus permitting study of an isolated effect of the dietary factor.
  43. Guo W, Li j, Blot Wj, et al. "Correlations of dietary intake and blood nutrient levels with esophageal cancer mortality in China." Nutr. Cancer 13 (1990): 121-127.
  44. The full effects of these fat-soluble antioxidants can be demonstrated only when antioxidant concentrations are adjusted for the levels of LDL for individual subjects. This was not known at the time of the survey, thus provisions were not made for this adjustment.
  45. Kneller RW, Guo W, Hsing AW, et al. "Risk factors for stomach cancer in Sixty-five Chinese counties." Cancer Epi. Biomarkers PreY. 1 (1992): 113-118.
  46. Information Plus. Nutrition: a key to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
  47. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman jS, et al. "Carbohydrate Diet Program." Am. }. Med. 113 (2002): 30-36.
  48. Atkins RC Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution. New York, NY: Avon Books, 1999.
  49. Wright jD, Kennedy-Stephenson j, Wang CY, et al. "Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients- United States, 1971-2000." Morbidity and mortality weekly report 53 (February 6, 2004): 80-82.
  50. Noakes M, and Clifton PM. "Weight loss and plasma lipids." Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 11 (2000): 65-70.
  51. Bilsborough SA, and Crowe TC "Low-carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short- and long-term health implications?" Asia Pac.}. Clin. Nutr. 12 (2003): 396-404.
  52. Stevens A, Robinson DP, TurpinJ, et al. "Sudden cardiac death of an adolescent during dieting." South. Med.}. 95 (2002): 1047-1049.
  53. Patty A. "Low-carb fad claims teen's life - Star diet blamed in death." The Daily Telegraph (Sidney, Australia) November 2, 2002:
  54. 54. Atkins, 1999. Page 275.
  55. Atkins claims that an antioxidant cocktail can protect against heart disease, cancer and aging, a claim refuted by several large trials recently completed (see chapter 11).
  56. Atkins, 1999. Page 103.
  57. BoneJ. "Diet doctor Atkins 'obese', had heart problems: coroner: Widow angrily denies that opponents' claims that heart condition caused by controverial diet." Ottawa Citizen February 11,2004: All.
  58. Campbell TC. "Energy balance: interpretation of data from rural China." Toxicological Sciences 52 (1999): 87-94.
  59. Horio F, Youngman LD, Bell RC, et al. "Thermogenesis, low-protein diets, and decreased development of AFBI-induced preneoplastic foci in rat liver." Nutr. Cancer 16 (1991): 31-41.
  60. Krieger E, Youngman LD, and Campbell TC. "The modulation of aflatoxin(AFB1) induced preneoplastic lesions by dietary protein and voluntary exercise in Fischer 344 rats ." FASEBJ. 2 (1988): 3304 Abs.
  61. The cited associations of total animal and plant protein intakes are taken from manuscript under review.
  62. Campbell TC, Chenj, Liu C, et al. "Non-association of aflatoxin with primary liver cancer in a cross-sectional ecologic survey in the People's Republic of China." Cancer Res. 50 (1990): 6882-6893. Part II: Diseases of Affluence / Bolesti bogatstva


Chapter 5: Broken Hearts / Slomljena srca

  1. Adams CF. "How many times does your heart beat per year?" Accessed October 20, 2003. Accessed at www.straightdope.com!classicslal_088a.html
  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "Morbidity and Mortality: 2002 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases." Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 2002.
  3. American Heart Association. "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2003 Update." Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, 2002.
  4. Braunwald E. "Shattuck lecture-cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns and opportunities." New Engl.J. Med. 337 (1997): 1360-1369.
  5. American Cancer Society. "Cancer Facts and Figures-1998." Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 1998.
  6. Anderson RN. "Deaths: leading causes for 2000." National Vital Statistics Reports 50(16) (2002):
  7. Enos WE, Holmes RH, and BeyerJ. "Coronary disease among United States soldiers killed in action in Korea." JAMA 152 (1953): 1090-1093.
  8. Esselstyn CJ. "Resolving the coronary artery disease epidemic through plant-based nutrition." Prevo Cardio!. 4 (2001): 171-177.
  9. Antman EM, and Braunwald E. "Acute myocardial infarction." In: E. Braunwald (ed.) , Heart disease, a textbook of cardiovascular disease, Vol. II (Fifth Edition), pp. 1184-1288. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1997.
  10. Esselstyn CJ. "Lecture: Reversing heart disease." December 5, 2002. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2002.
  11. Ambrose jA, and Fuster V. "Can we predict future acute coronary events in patients with stable coronary artery disease?" JAMA 277 (1997): 343-344.
  12. Forrester jS, and Shah PK. "Lipid lowering versus revascularization: an idea whose time (for testing) has come." Circulation 96 (1997): 1360-1362.
  13. Now named the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ofthe National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.
  14. GofmanjW, Lindgren F, Elliot H, et al. "The role of lipids and lipoproteins in atherosclerosis." Science III (1950): 166.
  15. Kannel WB, Dawber TR, Kagan A, et al. "Factors of risk in the development of coronary heart disease-six-year follow-up experience." Ann. Internal Medi. 55 (1961 ): 33-50.
  16. Jolliffe N, and Archer M. "Statistical associations between international coronary heart disease death rates and certain environmental factors."J' Chronic Dis. 9 (1959): 636-652.
  17. Scrimgeour EM, McCall MG, Smith DE, et al. "Levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and plasma glucose, and prevalence of diastolic hypertension and cigarette smoking in Papua New Guinea Highlanders." Pathology 21 (1989): 46-50.
  18. Campbell TC, Parpia B, and ChenJ. "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: The Cornell China Study." Am.J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 18T-21T.
  19. Kagan A, Harris BR, Winkelstein W, et al. "Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living inJapan, Hawaii and California."J' Chronic Dis. 27 (1974): 345-364.
  20. Kato H, Tillotson J, Nichaman MZ, et al. "Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: serum lipids and diet." Am.J. Epidemiol. 97 (1973): 372-385.
  21. Morrison LM. "Arteriosclerosis." JAMA 145 (1951): 1232-1236.
  22. Morrison LM. "Diet in coronary atherosclerosis." JAMA 173 (1960): 884-888.
  23. Lyon TP, Yankley A, Gofman Jw, et al. "Lipoproteins and diet in coronary heart disease." California Med. 84 (1956): 325-32B.
  24. Gibney MJ, and Kritchevsky D, eds. Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Volume 8: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
  25. Sirtori CR, Noseda G, and Descovich Gc. "Studies on the use of a soybean protein diet for the management of human hyperlipoproteinemias." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Volume 8: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis., pp. 135-148. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
  26. G.5. Myers, personal communication, cited by Groom, D. "Population studies of atherosclerosis." Ann. Internal Med. 55(1961):51-62.
  27. Centers for Disease Control. "Smoking and Health: a national status report." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 35 (1986): 709-711.
  28. Centers for Disease Control. "Cigarette smoking among adults-United States, 2000." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51 (2002): 642-645.
  29. Age-adjusted, ages 25-74.
  30. Marwick C. "Coronary bypass grafting economics, including rehabilitation. Commentary." Cun: Opin. Cardiol. 9 (1994): 635-640.
  31. Page 1319 in Gersh BJ, Braunwald E, and Rutherford JD. "Chronic coronary artery disease." In: E. Braunwald (ed.), Heart Disease: A Textbook of cardiovascular Medicine, Vol. 2(Fifth Edition) , pp. 1289-1365. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1997.
  32. Ornish D. "Avoiding revascularization with lifestyle changes: the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project." Am. J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 72T-76T.
  33. Shaw PJ, Bates D, Cartlidge NEF, et al. "Early intellectual dysfunction follOwing coronary bypass surgery." QuarterlyJ. Med. 58 (1986): 59-68.
  34. Cameron AAC, Davis KB, and Rogers WJ. "Recurrence of angina after coronary artery bypass surgery Predictors and prognosiS (CASS registry)."J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 26 (1995): 895-899.
  35. Page 1320 in Gersh BJ, Braunwald E, and RutherfordJD. "Chronic coronary artery disease." In: E. Braunwald (ed.), Heart Disease: A Textbook of cardiovascular Medicine, Vol. 2(Fifth Edition), pp. 1289-1365. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1997.
  36. Kirklin Jw, Naftel DC, Blackstone EH, et al. "Summary of a consensus concerning death and ischemic events after coronary artery bypass grafting." Circulation 79(Suppl 1) (1989): 181- 191.
  37. Page 1368-9 in Lincoff AM, and Topol EJ. "Interventional catherization techniques." In: E. Braunwald (ed.), Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, pp. 1366-1391. Philadelphia, PA: WB. Saunders, 1997.
  38. HirshfeldJW, SchwartzJS,Jugo R, et al. "Restenosis after coronary angioplasty: a multivariate statistical model to relate lesion and procedure variables to restenosis." J. Am. Coil. Cardiol. 18 (1991): 647-656.
  39. Information Plus. Nutrition: a key to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
  40. Naifeh SW The Best Doctors in America, 1994-1995. Aiken, S.c.: Woodward &. White, 1994.
  41. Esselstyn CB, Jr. "Foreward: changing the treatment paradigm for coronary artery disease." Am.J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 2T-4T.
  42. Essei!!tyn CE, Ellis SG, Medendorp Sv, et al. "A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician's practice." J. Family Practice 41 (1995): 560-568.
  43. Esselstyn C). "Introduction:more than coronary artery disease." Am.J. Cardio!. 82 (1998): 5T-9T.
  44. The flow of blood is related to the fourth power of the radius. Thus, a reduction of seven percent is approximately related to a 30% greater blood flow, although it is not possible to obtain by calculation a more precise determination of this number.
  45. Personal communication with Dr. Esselstyn, 9/15/03.
  46. Omish 0, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?" Lancet 336 (1990): 129-133.
  47. Ratliff NB. "Of rice, grain, and zeal: lessons from Drs. Kempner and Esselstyn." Cleveland Clin.J. Med. 67 (2000): 565-566.
  48. American Heart Association. "AHA Dietary Guidelines. Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association." Circulation 102 (2000): 2296-2311.
  49. National Cholesterol Education Program. "Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adult (adult treatment panel Ill): executive summary." Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 2001.
  50. Castelli W "Take this letter to your doctor." Prevention 48 (1996): 61-64.
  51. Schuler G, Hambrecht R, Schlierf G, et al. "Regular physical exercise and low-fat diet." Circulation 86 (1992): 1-11.


Chapter 6: Obesity / Gojaznost

  1. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, et al. "Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2000." lAMA 288 (2002): 1723-1727.
  2. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, et al. "Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents." lAMA 288 (2002): 1728-1732.
  3. Dietz WH. "Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease." Pediatrics 101 (1998): 518-525.
  4. Fontaine KR, and Barofsky L "Obesity and health-related quality of life." Obesity Rev. 2 (2001): 173-182.
  5. Colditz GA. "Economic costs of obesity and inactivity." Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 31 (1999): 5663-5667.
  6. Adcox S. "New state law seeks to cut down obesity." Ithacaloumal Sept. 21, 2002: SA.
  7. Ellis FR, and Montegriffo VME. "Veganism, clinical findings and investigations." Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 23 (1970): 249-255.
  8. Berenson, G., Srinivasan,S., Bao, W, Newman, W P. r. , Tracy, R. E., and Wattigney, W A. "Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis to children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study." New Engl.J. Med., 338: 1650-1656, 1998.
  9. Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies." Am.J. elin. Nutri. 70(Suppl.) (1999): 5165-5245.
  10. Bergan JG, and Brown PT. "Nutritional status of "new" vegetarians." J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 76 (1980): 151-155.
  11. Appleby PN, Thorogood M, MannJ, et al. "Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre, and alcohol." IntJ. Obes. 22 (1998): 454-460.
  12. DwyerJT. "Health aspects of vegetarian diets." Am.J. elin. Nutr. 48 (1988): 712-738.
  13. Key TJ, and Davey G. "Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat." Brit. Med. Journ. 313 (1996): 816-817.
  14. Shintani TT, Hughes CK, Beckham 5, et al. "Obesity and cardiovascular risk intervention through the ad libitum feeding of traditional Hawaiian diet." Am.J. elin. Nutr. 53 (1991): 16475-16515.
  15. Barnard Rj. "Effects of life-style modification on serum lipids." Arch. Intem. Med. 151 (1991): 1389-1394.
  16. McDougallJ, Litzau K, Haver E, et al. "Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet."J. Am. Coil. Nutr. 14 (1995): 491-496.
  17. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Doody RS, et al. "Effects of stress management training and dietary changes in treating ischemic heart disease." JAMA 249 (1983): 54-59.
  18. Shintani TT, Beckham 5, Brown AC, et al. "The Hawaii diet: ad libitum high carbohydrate, low fat multi-cultural diet for the reduction of chronic disease risk factors: obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia." Hawaii Med.Journ. 60 (2001): 69-73.
  19. Nicholson AS, Sklar M, Barnard ND, et al. 'Toward improved management of NIDDM: a randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet." Prevo Med. 29 (1999): 87-91.
  20. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, BillingsJH, et al. "Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease." JAMA 280 (1998): 2001-2007.
  21. Astrup A, Toubro 5, Raben A, et al. "The role of low-fat diets and fat substitutes in body weight management: what have we learned from clinical studies?"J' Am. Diet. Assoc. 97(suppl) (1997): 582-587.
  22. Duncan KH, BaconJA, and Weinsier RL. "The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects." Am.J. elin. Nutr. 37 (1983): 763-767.
  23. Heaton KW. "Food fibre as an obstacle to energy intake." Lancet (1973): 1418-1421.
  24. Levin N, RattanJ, and Gilat T. "Energy intake and body weight in ovo-lacto vegetarians."J' elin. Gastroenterol' 8 (1986): 451-453.
  25. Campbell TC. "Energy balance: interpretation of data from rural China." Toxicological Sciences 52 (1999): 87-94.
  26. Poehlman ET, Arciero PJ, Melby CL, et al. "Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in vegetarians and nonvegetarians." Am.J. elin. Nutr. 48 (1988): 209-213.
  27. The study by Poehlman et al. showed high oxygen consumption and higher resting metabolic rate but was badly misinterpreted by the authors. We had very similar results with experimental rats.
  28. Fogelholm M, and Kukkonen-Harjula K. "Does physical activity prevent weight gain-a systematic review." Obesity Rev. 1 (2000): 95-111.
  29. Ravussin E, Lillioja 5, Anderson TE, et al. "Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber."J' elin. Invest. 78 (1986): 1568-1578.
  30. Thorburn AW, and Proietto j. "Biological determinants of spontaneous physical activity." Obesity Rev. 1 (2000): 87-94.
  31. Krieger E, Youngman LD, and Campbell TC. "The modulation of aflatoxin(AFB1) induced preneoplastic lesions by dietary protein and voluntary exercise in Fischer 344 rats ." FASEBJ. 2 (1988): 3304 Abs.
  32. Heshka S, and Allison DB. "Is obesity a disease?" In!.J. Obesity Re!. Dis. 25 (2001): 1401-1404.
  33. Kopelman PG, and Finer N. "Reply: is obesity a disease?" IntJ. Obes. 25 (2001): 1405-1406.
  34. Campbell TC. "Are your genes hazardous to your health?" Nutrition Advocate 1 (1995): 1-2, 8.
  35. Campbell TC. "Genetic seeds of disease. How to beat the odds." Nutrition Advocate 1 (1995): 1-2, 8.
  36. Campbell TC. "The 'Fat Gene' dream machine." Nutrition Advocate 2 (1996): 1-2.


Chapter 7: Diabetes / Secerna bolest

  1. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. "Diabetes trends in the U.s.: 1990-1998." Diabetes Care 23 (2000): 1278-1283.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "National Diabetes Fact Sheet: General Information and National Estimates on Diabetes in the United States, 2000." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  3. Griffin KL. "New lifestyles: new lifestyles, hope for kids with diabetes." Milwaukee Journal Sentine!22July 2002: IG.
  4. American Diabetes Association. "Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents." Diabetes Care 23 (2000): 381-389.
  5. Himsworth HP. "Diet and the incidence of diabetes mellitus." Gin. Sci. 2 (1935): 117-148.
  6. West KM, and Kalbfleisch JM. "Glucose tolerance, nutrition, and diabetes in Uruguay, Venezuela, Malaya, and East Pakistan." Diabetes 15 (1966): 9-18.
  7. West KM, and Kalbfleisch JM. "Influence of nutritional factors on prevalence of diabetes." Diabetes 20 (1971): 99-108.
  8. Fraser GE. "Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists." Am.J. Gin. Nutr. 70(Suppl.) (1999): 5325-538S.
  9. Snowdon DA, and Phillips RL. "Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?" Am.J. Publ. Health 75 (1985): 507-512.
  10. Tsunehara CH, Leonetti DL, and Fujimoto WY. "Diet of second generation Japanese-American men with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes." Am.J. Gin. Nutri. 52 (1990): 731-738.
  11. Marshall J, Hamman RF, and Baxter J. "High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet and the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the San Luis Valley Study." Am. J. Epidemiol. 134 (1991): 590-603.
  12. Kittagawa T, Owada M, Urakami T, et al. "Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among Japanese schoolchildren correlates with an increased intake of animal protein and fa!." Gin. Pediatr. 37 (1998): 111-116.
  13. Trowell H. "Diabetes mellitus death-rates in England and Wales 1920-1970 and food supplies." Lancet 2 (1974): 998-1002.
  14. Meyer KA, Kushi LH,Jacobs DR, Jr., et al. "Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident Type 2 diabetes in older women." Am.J. Gin. Nutri. 71 (2000): 921-930.
  15. AndersonJW "Dietary fiber in nutrition management of diabetes." In: G. Vahouny, V. and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Dietary Fiber: Basic and Clinical Aspects, pp. 343-360. New York: Plenum Press, 1986.
  16. Anderson Jw, Chen WL, and Sieling B. "Hypolipidemic effects of high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets." Metabolism 29 (1980): 551-558.
  17. Story L, AndersonJW, Chen WL, et al. "Adherence to high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets: long-term studies of non-obese diabetic men." Journ. Am. Diet. Assoc. 85 (1985): 1105-1110.
  18. Barnard RJ, Lattimore L, Holly RG, et al. "Response of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients to an intensive program of diet and exercise." Diabetes Care 5 (1982): 370-374.
  19. Barnard RJ, Massey MR, Cherny S, et al. "Long-term use of a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet and exercise in the treatment of NIDDM patients." Diabetes Care 6 (1983): 268-273.
  20. AndersonJw, Gustafson NJ, Bryant CA, et al. "Dietary fiber and diabetes: a comprehensive review and practical application."J' Am. Diet. Assoc. 87 (1987): 1189-1197.
  21. Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Bacon S, et al. "Diabetic diets: high carbohydrate combined with high fiber." Am.J. Clin. Nutri. 33 (1980): 1729-1733.
  22. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. "Reduction in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or Metformin." New Engl. J. Med. 346 (2002): 393-403.
  23. Tuomilehto J, LindstromJ, Eriksson JG, et al. "Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance." New Engl.J. Med. 344 (2001): 1343-1350.


Chapter 8: Common Cancers: Breast, Prostate, Large Bowel (Colon and Rectal) / Uobicajeni rakovi: dojke, prostate, d3belog creva i rektuma

  1. Estrogen present in its free, unbound form.
  2. Estrogen activity is due to more than one analogue, but usually refers to estradiol. I will use the general term "estrogen" to include all steroid and related female hormones whose effects parallel estradiol activity. A small amount of testosterone in women also shows the same effect.
  3. Wu AH, Pike MC, and Stram DO. "Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer." J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91 (1999): 529-534.
  4. Bernstein L, and Ross RK. "Endogenous hormones and breast cancer risk." Epidemiol. Revs. 15 (1993): 48-65.
  5. Pike MC, Spicer DY, Dahmoush L, et al. "Estrogens, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk." Epidemiol. Revs. 15 (1993): 17-35.
  6. Bocchinfuso WP, LindzeyJK, Hewitt SC, et al. "Induction of mammary gland development in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice." Endocrinology 141 (2000): 2982-2994.
  7. Atwood CS, Hovey RC, Glover JP, et al. "Progesterone induces Side-branching of the ductal epithelium in the mammary glands of peri pubertal mice."J. Endocrinol. 167 (2000): 39-52.
  8. Rose DP, and Pruitt BT. "Plasma prolactin levels in patients with breast cancer." Cancer 48 (1981): 2687-2691.
  9. Dorgan JF, Longcope C, Stephenson HE, Jr., et al. "Relation of prediagnostic serum estrogen and androgen levels to breast cancer risk." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5 (1996): 533-539.
  10. DorganJF, Stanczyk FZ, Longcope C, et al. "Relationship of serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6 (1997):
  11. Thomas HY, Key TJ, Allen DS, et al. "A prospective study of endogenous serum hormone concentrations and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women on the island of Guernsey." Brit.J. Cancer 76 (1997): 410-405.
  12. Hankinson SE, Willett W, Manson JE, et al. "Plasma sex steroid hormone levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women."J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90 (1998): 1292-1299.
  13. Rosenthal MB, Barnard RJ, Rose DP, et al. "Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol." Am.J. Med. 78 (1985): 23-27.
  14. Adlercreutz H. "Western diet and Western diseases: some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations." Scand.J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 50(SuppI.201) (1990): 3-23.
  15. Heber 0, Ashley JM, LeafDA, et at. "Reduction of serum estradiol in postmenopausal women given free access to low-fat high-carbohydrate diet." Nutrition 7 (1991): 137-139.
  16. Rose DP, Goldman M, Connolly JM, et al. "High-fiber diet reduces serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women." Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 54 (1991): 520-525.
  17. Rose DP, Lubin M, and Connolly JM. "Efects of diet supplementation with wheat bran on serum estrogen levels in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle." Nutrition 13 (1997): 535-539.
  18. Tymchuk CN, Tessler SB, and Barnard RJ. "Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin, and serum lipids in postmenopausal women on a low-fat, high-fiber diet combined with exercise." Nutr. Cancer 38 (2000): 158-162.
  19. Key TJA, ChenJ, Wang DY, et a1. "Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain." Brit.J. Cancer 62 (1990): 631-636.
  20. Prentice R, Thompson 0 , Clifford C, et at. "Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentration in healthy postmenopausal women." J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990): 129-134.
  21. Boyar Ap, Rose Dp, and Wynder EL. "Recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease: the application for breast disease." Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 48(3 Suppl) (1988): 896--900.
  22. Nandi S, Guzman RC, and YangJ. "Hormones and mammary carcinogenesis in mice, rats and humans: a unifying hypothesis." Proc. National Acad. Sci 92 (1995): 3650-3657.
  23. Peto J, Easton OF, Matthews FE, et al. "Cancer mortality in relatives of women with breast cancer, the OPCS study." Int.J. Cancer 65 (1996): 275-283.
  24. Colditz GA, Willett W, Hunter OJ, et at. "Family history, age, and risk of breast cancer. Prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study." lAMA 270 (1993): 338-343.
  25. National Human Genome Research Institute. "Learning About Breast Cancer." Accessed at www.genome.gov/l0000507#ql
  26. Futreal PA, Liu Q, Shattuck-Eidens 0 , et al. "BRCAI mutations in primary breast and ovarian carcinomas." Science 266 (1994): 120-122.
  27. Miki Y, SwensenJ, Shatttuck-Eidens 0, et al. "A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1." Science 266 (1994): 66--71.
  28. Wooster R, Bignell G, Lancaster J, et al. "Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2." Nature 378 (1995): 789-792.
  29. Tavtigian Sv, Simard J, Rommens J, et al. "The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds." Nat. Genet. 12 (1996): 333-337.
  30. Ford 0, Easton 0, Bishop DT, et al. "Risks of cancer in BRCAI mutation carriers." Lancet 343 (1994): 692-695.
  31. Antoniou A, Pharoah PDp, Narod S, et at. "Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCAI or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies." Am.J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2003): 1117-1130.
  32. Newman B, Mu H, Butler LM, et al. "Frequency of breast cancer attributable to BRCAI in a population-based series of American women." lAMA 279 (1998): 915-921.
  33. PetoJ, Collins N, Barfoot R, et al. "Prevalence of BRCAI and BRCA2 gene mutations in patients with early-onset breast cancer."J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91 (1999): 943-949.
  34. Tabar L, Fagerberg G, Chen HH, et al. "Efficacy of breast cancer screening by age. New results from the Swedish Two-County Trial." Cancer 75 (1995): 2507-2517.
  35. Bjurstram N, Bjomeld L, Duffy Sw, et a1. "The Gothenburg Breast Cancer Screening Trial: first results on mortality, incidence, and mode of detection for women ages 39-49 years at randomization." Cancer 80 (1997): 2091-2099.
  36. Frisell J, Lidbrink E, Hellstrom L, et at. "Follow-up after 11 years: update of mortality results in the Stockholm mammographic screening trial." Breast Cancer Res. Treat 199745 (1997): 263-270.
  37. Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, et at. "Cancer statistics, 2001." CA CancerJ. Clin. 51 (2001): 15-36.
  38. CairnsJ. "The treatment of diseases and the War against Cancer." Sci. Am. 253 (1985): 31-39.
  39. CuzickJ, and Baum M. "Tamoxifen and contralateral breast cancer." Lancet 2 (1985): 282.
  40. CuzickJ, Wang DY, and Bulbrook RD. "The prevention of breast cancer." Lancet 1 (1986): 83-86.
  41. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et a!. "Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-l Study" j. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90 (1998): 1371-1388.
  42. Freedman AN, Graubard BI, Rao SR, et a!. "Estimates of the number of U.S. women who could benefit from tamoxifen for breast cancer chemoprevention." j. Nat. Cancer Inst. 95 (2003): 526--532.
  43. Powles T, Eeles R, Ashley S, et a!. "Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention tria!''' Lancet 352 (1998): 98-101.
  44. Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Costa A, et a!. "Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women." Lancet 352 (1998): 93-97.
  45. Cuzick J. "A brief review of the current breast cancer prevention trials and proposals for future trials." Eur J Cancer 36 (2000): 1298-1302.
  46. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, et a!. "The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized tria!." JAMA 281 (1999): 2189-2197.
  47. Dorgan JF, Hunsberger S, A., McMahon RP, et a!. "Diet and sex hormones in girls: findings from a randomized controlled clinical tria!' '' j. Nat. Cancer Inst. 95 (2003): 132-141.
  48. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, BillingsJH, et a!. "Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease." JAMA 280 (1998): 2001-2007.
  49. Esseistyn CB, Ellis SG, Medendorp Sv, et a!. "A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician's practice." j. Family Practice 41 (1995): 560-568.
  50. Hildenbrand GLG, Hildenbrand LC, Bradford K, et a!. "Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 1 (1995): 29-37.
  51. Youngman LD, and Campbell TC. "Inhibition of aflatoxin Bl-induced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) hepatic preneoplastic foci and tumors by low protein diets: evidence that altered GGT+ foci indicate neoplastic potentia!." Carcinogenesis 13 (1992): 1607-1613.
  52. Ronai Z, Gradia S, El-Bayoumy K, et a!. "Contrasting incidence of ras mutations in rat mammary and mouse skin tumors induced by anti-benzo!clphenanthrene-3,4-diol-l,2-epoxide." Carcinogensis 15 (1994): 2113-2116.
  53. Jeffy BD, Schultz EU, Selmin 0, et a!. "Inhibition of BRCA-l expression by benzo!alpyrene and diol epoxide." Mol. Carcinogenesis 26 (1999): 100-118.
  54. Gammon MD, Santella RM, Neugut AI, et a!. "Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island.!. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11 (2002): 677-685.
  55. Gammon MD, Wolff MS, Neugut AI, et a!. "Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. II. Organchlorine compound levels in blood." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11 (2002): 686-697.
  56. Humphries KH, and Gill S. "Risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy: the evidence speaks." Canadian Med. Assoc. Journ. 168 (2003): 1001-1010.
  57. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. "Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial." JAMA 288 (2002): 321-333.
  58. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. "Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen! progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group." JAMA 280 (1998): 605-613.
  59. While this finding is not statistically significant, its consistency with the WHI finding is striking.
  60. International Agency for Cancer Research. "Globocan" (accessed 18 October 2002), http: //www-dep.iardglobocan.hunl."
  61. Kinzler KW, and Vogelstein B. "Lessons from Heredity. Colorectal Cancer." Cell 87 (1996): 159-170.
  62. Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer Incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0. Lyon, France: IARCPress, 2001.
  63. Limited version of Ferlay et al. document available at www.dep.iarc.fr/globocan! globocan.htm, last updated on 03/02/2001.
  64. Expert Panel. Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer, a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research I World Cancer Research Fund, 1997.
  65. Armstrong D, and Doll R. "Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices." Int.J. Cancer 15 (1975): 617-631.
  66. Burkitt DP. "Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and the rectum." Cancer 28 (1971): 3-13.
  67. Jansen MCJF, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Buzina R, et al. "Dietary fiber and plant foods in relation to colorectal cancer mortality: The Seven Countries Study." Int . J. Cancer 81 (1999): 174-179.
  68. Whiteley La, and Klurfeld DM. "Are dietary fiber-induced alterations in colonic epithelial cell proliferation predictive of fiber's effect on colon cancer?" Nutr. Cancer 36 (2000): 131-149.
  69. Most of these associations were not statistically Significant, but the consistency of the inverse association between fiber and colorectal cancer was impressive.
  70. Campbell TC, Wang G, Chen J, et al. "Dietary fiber intake and colon cancer mortality in The People's Republic of China." In: D. Kritchevsky, C. Bonfield andJ. W Anderson (eds.), Dietary Fiber, pp. 473-480. New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1990.
  71. Trock B, Lanza E, and Greenwald P. "Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analysis of the epidemiologic evidence." J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 82 (1990): 650-661.
  72. Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, et al. "Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies." J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 84 (1992): 1887-1896.
  73. Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, et al. "Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study." Lancet 361 (2003): 1496-1501.
  74. O'Keefe SJD, Ndaba N, and Woodward A. "Relationship between nutritional status, dietary intake patterns and plasma lipoprotein concentrations in rural black South Africans." Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nutr. 39 (1985): 335-341.
  75. Sitas E "Histologically diagnosed cancers in South Africa, 1988."5. African Med.J. 84 (1994): 344-348.
  76. O'Keefe SJD, Kidd M, Espitalier-Noel G, et al. "Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber." Am.J. Gastroenterology 94 (1999): 1373-1380.
  77. McKeown-Eyssen G. "Epidemiology of colorectal cancer revisited: are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk?" Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3 (1994): 687-695.
  78. Giovannucci E. "Insulin and colon cancer." Cancer Causes and Control 6 (1995): 164-179.
  79. Bruce WR, Giacca A, and Medline A. "Possible mechanisms relating diet and risk of colon cancer." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9 (2000): I271-I279.
  80. Kono 5, Honjo 5, Todoroki 1, et al. "Glucose intolerance and adenomas of the sigmoid colon in japanese men Oapan)." Cancer Causes and Control 9 (1998): 441-446.
  81. Schoen RE, Tangen CM, Kuller LH, et al. "Increased blood glucose and insulin, body size, and incident colorectal cancer."J' Nat. Cancer Inst. 91 (1999): 1147-1154.
  82. Bruce WR, Wolever TMS, and Giacca A. "Mechanisms linking diet and colorectal cancer: the possible role of insulin resistance." Nutr. Cancer 37 (2000): 19-26.
  83. Lipkin M, and Newmark H. "Development of clinical chemoprevention trials."J' Nat. Cancer Inst. 87 (1995): I275-1277.
  84. Holt PR, Atillasoy EO, Gilman j, et al. "Modulation of abnormal colonic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation by low-fat dairy foods. A randomized trial." JAMA 280 (1998): 1074-1079.
  85. Mobarhan S. "Calcium and the colon: recent findings." Nutr. Revs. 57 (1999): I24-I26.
  86. Alberts DS, Ritenbuagh C, Story jA, et al. "Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of effect of wheat bran fiber and calcium on fecal bile acids in patients with resected adenomatous colon polyps." J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 88 (1996): 81-92.
  87. Chenj, Campbell TC, Lij, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
  88. jassjR. "Colon cancer: the shape of things to come." Gut 45 (1999): 794-795.
  89. Burt RW "Colon cancer screening." Gastroenterology 119 (2000): 837-853.
  90. Winawer Sj, Zauber AG, Ho MN, et al. "Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy." New Engl.J. Med. 329 (1993): 1977-1981.
  91. Pignone M, Rich M, Teutsch SM, et al. "Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force." Ann. Internal Med. 137 (2002): 132-141.
  92. Scott Rj, and Sobol HH. "Prognostic implications of cancer susceptibility genes: Any news?" Recent Results in Cancer Research 151 (1999): 71-84.
  93. Lee ML, Wang R-T, Hsing AW, et al. "Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in China." Cancer Causes and Control 9 (1998): 545-552.
  94. Villers A, Soulie M, Haillot 0, et al. "Prostate cancer screening (llI): risk factors, natural history, course without treatment." Progr. Urol. 7 (1997): 655-661.
  95. Stanford jL. "Prostate cancer trends 1973-1995." Bethesda, MD: SEER Program, National Cancer Institute, 1998.
  96. ChanjM, and Giovannucci EL. "Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer." Epidemiol. Revs. 23 (2001): 87-92.
  97. Giovannucci E. "Dietary influences of 1,25 (OH), vitamin D in relation to prostate cancer: a hypothesis." Cancer Causes and Control 9 (1998): 567-582.
  98. Chan jM, Stampfer Mj, Ma J, et al. "Insulin-like growth factor-I OGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer." J Nat! Cancer Ins! 94 (2002): 1099-1109.
  99. Doi SQ, Rasaiah 5, Tack I, et al. "Low-protein diet suppresses serum insulin-like growth factor- I and decelerates the progresseion of growth hormone-induced glomerulosclerosis." Am. J. Nephrol. 21 (2001): 331-339. 100. Heaney RP, McCarron DA, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. "Dietary changes favorably affect bond remodeling in older adults." J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 99 (1999): 1228-1233. 101. Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, et al. "Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-l but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men." Brit.J. Cancer 83 (2000): 95-97. 102. Cohen P, Peehl DM, and Rosenfeld RG. "The IGFaxis in the prostate." Honn. Metab. res. 26 (1994): 81-84.


Chapter 9: Autoimmune Diseases / Autoimune bolesti

  1. Mackay IR. "Tolerance and immunity." Brit. Med.}oum. 321 (2000): 93-96.
  2. Jacobson Dl, Gange Sj, Rose NR, et al. "Short analytical review. Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States." Clin. Immunol. Immunopath. 84 (1997): 223-243.
  3. Davidson A, and Diamond B. "Autoimmune diseases." New Eng!.J. Med. 345 (2001): 340-350.
  4. Aranda R, Sydora BC, McAllister Pl, et al. "Analysis of intestinal lymphocytes in mouse colitis mediated by transfer of CD4+, CD45RBhigh T cells to SCIO recipients." J. Immunol. 158 (1997): 3464-3473.
  5. Folgar S, Gatto EM, Raina G, et al. "Parkinsonism as a manifestation of multiple sclerosis." Movement Disorders 18 (2003): 108-113.
  6. Cantoma MT. "Vitamin D and autoimmunity: is vitamin D status an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence?" Proc. Soc. Exp. BioI. Med. 223 (2000): 230-233.
  7. Deluca HF, and Cantoma MT. "Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology." FASEBJ. 15 (2001): 2579-2585.
  8. Winer S, Astsaturov I, Cheung RK, et al. "T cells of multiple sclerosis patients target a common environmental peptide that causes encephalitis in mice." J. Immunol. 166 (2001): 4751-4756.
  9. Davenport CB. "Multiple sclerosis from the standpoint of geographic distribution and race." Arch. Neurol. Pschiatry 8 (1922): 51-58.
  10. Alter M, Yamoor M, and Harshe M. "Multiple sclerosis and nutrition." Arch. Neurol. 31 (1974): 267-272.
  11. Carroll M. "Innate immunity in the etiopathology of autoimmunity." Nature Immunol. 2 (2001): 1089-1090.
  12. KaIjalainen j, Martin jM, Knip M, et al. "A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus." New Engl.}ourn. Med. 327 (1992): 302-307.
  13. Akerblom HK, and Knip M. "Putative environmental factors and Type 1 diabetes." Diabetes l Metabolism Revs. 14 (1998): 31-67.
  14. Naik RG, and Palmer JP. "Preservation of beta-cell function in Type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Rev. 7 (1999): 154-182.
  15. Virtanen SM, Rasanen l , Aro A, et al. "Infant feeding in Finnish children less than 7 yr of age with newly diagnosed IODM. Childhood diabetes in Finland Study Group." Diabetes Care 14 (1991): 415-417.
  16. Savilahti E, Akerblom HK, Tainio V-M, et al. "Children with newly diagnosed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus have increased levels of cow's milk antibodies." Diabetes Res. 7 (1988): 137-140.
  17. Yakota A, Yamaguchi T, Ueda T, et al. "Comparison of islet cell antibodies, islet cell surface antibodies and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies in Type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 9 (1990): 211-217.
  18. Hammond-McKibben D, and Dosch H-M. "Cow's milk, bovine serum albumin, and IODM: can we settle the controversies?" Diabetes Care 20 (1997): 897-901.
  19. Akerblom HK, Vaarala 0, Hyoty H, et al. "Environmental factors in the etiology of Type 1 diabetes." Am. J. Med. Genet. (Semin. Med. Genet.) 115 (2002): 18-29.
  20. Gottlieb MS, and Root HF. "Diabetes mellitus in twins." Diabetes 17 (1968): 693-704.
  21. Barnett AH, Eff C, Leslie RDG, et al. "Diabetes in identical twins: a study of 200 pairs." Diabetologia 20 (1981): 87-93.
  22. Borch-Johnsen K, Joner G, Mandrup-Poulsen T, et al. "Relation between breast feeding and incidence rates of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a hypothesis." Lancet 2 (1984): 1083-1086.
  23. Perez-Bravo F, Carrasco E, Gutierrez-Lopez MD, et al. "Genetic predisposition and environmental factors leading to the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Chilean children."J' Mol. Med. 74 (1996): 105-109.
  24. KostrabaJN, Cruickshanks KJ, Lawler-Heavner J, et al. "Early exposure to cow's milk and solid foods in infancy; genetic predisposition, and risk of lODM." Diabetes 42 (1993): 288-295.
  25. Pyke DA. "The genetic perspective: putting research into practice." In: Diabetes 1988, Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 1227-1230.
  26. Kaprio J, Tuomilehto J, Koskenvuo M, et al. "Concordance for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a population-based cohort of twins in Finland." Diabetologia 35 (1992): 1060-1067.
  27. Dahl-Jorgensen K,Joner G, and Hanssen KF. "Relationship between cow's milk consumption and incidence of lODM in childhood." Diabetes Care 14 (1991): 1081-1083.
  28. The proportion of Type 1 diabetes due to the consumption of cow's milk, the r2 value, is 96%.
  29. LaPorte RE, Tajima N, Akerblom HK, et al. "Geographic differences in the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the importance of registries." Diabetes Care 8(Suppl. 1) (1985): 101-107.
  30. Bodansky HJ, Staines A, Stephenson C, et al. "Evidence for an environmental effect in the aetiology of insulin dependent diabetes in a transmigratory population." Brit. Med. Journ. 304 (1992): 1020-1022.
  31. Burden AC, Samanta A, and Chaunduri KH. "The prevalence and incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes in white and Indian children in Leicester city (UK)." Int.J. Diabetes Dev. Countries 10 (1990): 8-10.
  32. Elliott R, and Ong TJ. "Nutritional genomics." Brit. Med.Journ. 324 (2002): 1438-1442.
  33. Onkamo P, Vaananen S, Karvonen M, et al. "Worldwide increase in incidence of Type 1 diabetes-the analysis of the data on published incidence trends." Diabetologia 42 (1999): 1395-1403.
  34. Gerstein He. "Cow's milk exposure and Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a critical overview of the clinical literature." Diabetes Care 17 (1994): 13-19.
  35. Kimpimaki T, Erkkola M, Korhonen S, et al. "Short-term exclusive breastfeeding predisposes young children with increased genetic risk of Type 1 diabetes to progressive beta-cell autoimmunity." Diabetologia 44 (2001): 63-69.
  36. Virtanen SM, Laara E, Hypponen E, et al. "Cow's milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and Type 1 diabetes." Diabetes 49 (2000): 912-917.
  37. Monetini L, Cavallo MG, Stefanini L, et al. "Bovine beta-casein antibodies in breast- and bottle-fed infants: their relevance in Type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 17 (2001): 51-54.
  38. NorrisJM, and Pietropaolo M. "Review article. Controversial topics series: milk proteins and diabetes."J' Endocrinol. Invest. 22 (1999): 568-580.
  39. Reingold Se. "Research Directions in Multiple Sclerosis." National Multiple Sclerosis Society, November 25, 2003.
  40. Ackermann A. "Die multiple sklerose in der Schweiz." Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 61 (1931): 1245-1250.
  41. Swank RL. "Multiple sclerosis: correlation of its incidence with dietary fat." Am.J. Med. Sci. 220 (1950): 421-430.
  42. Dip JB. "The distribution of multiple sclerosis in relation to the dairy industry and milk consumption." New Zealand Med.J. 83 (1976): 427-430.
  43. McDougall JM. 2002. Multiple sclerosis stopped by McDougall/Swank Program.
  44. McLeodJG, Hammond SR, and HallpikeJE "Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Australia. With NSW and SA survey results." Med.J. Austr 160 (1994): 117-122.
  45. Lawrence JS, Behrend T, Bennett PH, et at. "Geographical studies of rheumatoid arthritis." Ann. Rheum. Dis. 25 (1966): 425-432.
  46. Keen H, and Ekoe JM. "The geography of diabetes mellitus." Brit. Med. Journ. 40 (1984): 359-365.
  47. Swank RL "Effect oflow saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 37-39.
  48. Swank RL "Treatment of multiple sclerosis with low fat diet." A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 69 (1953): 91-103.
  49. Swank RL, and Bourdillon RB. "Multiple sclerosis: assessment of treatment with modified low fat diet."J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 131 (1960): 468-488.
  50. Swank RL "Multiple sclerosis: twenty years on low fat diet." Arch. Neurol. 23 (1970): 460-474.
  51. Agranoff BW, and Goldberg D. "Diet and the geographical distribution of multiple sclerosis." Lancet 2(7888) (November 21974): 1061-1066.
  52. Malosse 0, Perron H, Sasco A, et at. "Correlation between milk and dairy product consumption and multiple sclerosis prevalence: a worldwide study." Neuroepidemiology 11 (1992): 304-312.
  53. Malosse 0, and Perron H. "Correlation analysis between bovine populations, other farm animals, house pets, and multiple sclerosis prevalence." Neuroepidemiology 12 (1993): 15-27.
  54. Lauer K. "Diet and multiple sclerosis." Neurology 49(suppI2) (1997): 555-561.
  55. Swank RL, Lerstad 0 , Strom A, et a. "Multiple sclerosis in rural Norway. Its geographic distribution and occupational incidence in relation to nutrition." New Engl.J. Med. 246 (1952): 721-728.
  56. Dalgleish AG. "Viruses and multiple sclerosis." Acta Neurol. Scand. Supp. 169 (1997): 8--15.
  57. McAlpine 0, Lumsden CE, and Acheson ED. Multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal. Edinburgh and London: E&:S Livingston, 1965.
  58. Alter M, Liebowitz V, and Speer J. "Risk of multiple sclerosis related to age at immigration to Israel." Arch. Neurol. 15 (1966): 234-237.
  59. Kurtzke JF, Beebe GW, and Norman JE, Jr. "Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in V.S. veterans: 1. Race, sex, and geographic distribution." Neurology 29 (1979): 1228--1235.
  60. Ebers GC, Bulman DE, Sadovnick AD, et at. "A population-based study of multiple sclerosis in twins." New Engl.J. Med. 315 (1986): 1638--1642.
  61. Acheson ED, Bachrach CA, and Wright FM. "Some comments on the relationship of the distribution of multiple sclerosis to latitude solar radiation and other variables." Acta Psychiatrica Neurologica Scand. 35 (Supp1.l47) (1960): 132-147.
  62. Warren 5, and Warren KG. "Multiple sclerosis and associated diseases: a relationship to diabetes mellitus."J. Canadian Sci. Neurol. 8 (1981): 35-39.
  63. Wertman E, Zilber N, and Abransky 0. "An association between multiple sclerosis and Type 1 diabetes mellitus."J' Neurol. 239 (1992): 43-45.
  64. Marrosu MG, Cocco E, Lai M, et a. "Patients with multiple sclerosis and risk of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sardinia, Italy: a cohort study." Lancet 359 (2002): 1461-1465.
  65. Buzzetti R, Pozzilli P, Di Mario V , et at. "Multiple sclerosis and Type 1 diabetes." Diabetologia 45 (2002): 1735-1736.
  66. Lux WE, and Kurtzke JE "Is Parkinson's disease acquired? Evidence from a geographic comparison with multiple sclerosis." Neurology 37 (1987): 467-471.
  67. Prahalad S, Shear ES, Thompson SO, et al. "Increased Prevalence of Familial Autoimmunity in Simplex and Multiplex Families with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis." Arthritis Rheumatism 46 (2002): 1851-1856.
  68. Cantorna MT, Munsick C, Bemiss C, et al. "I,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Prevents and Ameliorates Symptoms of Experimental Murine Inflammatory Bowel Disease." J. Nutr. 130 (2000): 2648-2652.
  69. Cantorna MT, Woodward WD, Hayes CE, et al. "I,25-Dihydroxyvitamin 0 3 is a positive regulator for the two anti-encephalitogenic cytokines TGF-Bl and Il-4." J Immunol. 160 (1998): 5314-5319.
  70. Cantorna MT, Humpal-Winter J, and Deluca HE "Dietary calcium is a major factor in 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice."J. Nutr. 129 (1999): 1966-1971.
  71. Multiple Sclerosis International Federation. "Alternative Therapies." November 25, 2003.


Chapter 10: Wide-Ranging Effects: Bone, Kidney, Eye and Brain Diseases / Efekti sirokog raspona: bolesti kostiju, bubrega, ociju i mozga

  1. Frassetto LA, Todd KM, Morris C, Jr., et al. "Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods." J. Gerontology 55 (2000): M585-M592.
  2. Abelow BJ, Holford TR, and Insogna KL. "Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis." Calcif. Tissue Int. 50 (1992): 14-18.
  3. Wachsman A, and Bernstein OS. "Diet and osteoporosis." Lancet May 4, 1968 (1968): 958-959.
  4. Barzel U.S .. "Acid loading and osteoporosis."J' Am. Geriatr. Soc. 30 (1982): 613.
  5. Sherman He. "Calcium requirement for maintenance in man." J. Bioi. Chern. 39 (1920): 21-27.
  6. Animal protein includes more of the sulphur-containing amino acids. When digested and metabolized, these amino acids produce the acid-forming sulphate ion, which must be excreted by the kidney. A recent report showed a remarkable 84% correlation between animal protein consumption and urinary acid excretion of sulphate.
  7. BrosnanJT, and Brosnan ME. "Dietary protein, metabolic acidosis, and calcium balance." In: H. H. Draper (ed.), Advances in Nutritional Research, pp. 77-105. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.
  8. Frassetto LA, Todd KM, Morris RC, Jr., et al. "Estimation of net endogenous noncarbonic acid production in humans from diet potassium and protein contents." Am.J. Clin. Nutri. 68 (1998): 576-583.
  9. Margen 5, Chu J-Y, Kaufmann NA, et al. "Studies in calcium metabolism. I. The calciuretic effect of dietary protein." Am.J. Clin. Nutr. 27 (1974): 584-589.
  10. Hegsted M, Schuette SA, Zemel MB, et al. "Urinary calcium and calcium balance in young men as affected by level of protein and phosphorus intake. "J' Nutr. 111 (1981): 553-562.
  11. Kerstetter JE, and Allen lH. "Dietary protein increases urinary calcium." J. Nutr. 120 (1990): 134-136.
  12. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, et al. "Carbohydrate Diet Program." Am.J. Med. 113 (2002): 30-36.
  13. Sellmeyer DE, Stone Kl, Sebastian A, et al. "A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women." Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73 (2001): 118-122.
  14. Hegsted OM. "Calcium and osteoporosis." J. Nutr. 116 (1986): 2316-2319.
  15. Heaney RP. "Protein intake and bone health: the influence of belief systems on the conduct of nutritional science." Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73 (2001): 5-6.
  16. Cummings SR, and Black D. "Bone mass measurements and risk of fracture in Caucasian women: a review of findings for prospective studies." Am. J. Med. 98(Suppl 2A) (1995): 25-245.
  17. Marshall 0, Johnell 0, and Wedel H. "Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures." Brit. Med. Journ. 312 (1996): 1254-1259.
  18. Lips P. "Epidemiology and predictors of fractures associated with osteoporosis." Am.J. Med. 103(2A) (1997): 35-115.
  19. Lane NE, and Nevitt Me. "Osteoarthritis, bone mass, and fractures: how are they related?" Arthritis Rheumatism 46 (2002): 1-4.
  20. Lucas FL, Cauley JA, Stone RA, et al. "Bone mineral density and risk of breast cancer: differences by family history of breast cancer." Am.J. Epidemiol. 148 (1998): 22-29.
  21. Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, et a1. "Bone mineral density and risk of breast cancer in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures."JAMA 276 (1996): 1404-1408.
  22. Mincey BA. "Osteoporosis in women with breast cancer." CUff. Oncol. Rpts. 5 (2003): 53-57.
  23. Riis BJ. "The role of bone loss." Am. J. Med. 98(SuppI2A) (1995): 25-295.
  24. Ho Se. "Body measurements, bone mass, and fractures: does the East differ from the West?" Clin. Orthopaed. Related Res. 323 (1996): 75-80.
  25. Aspray TJ, Prentice A, Cole IJ, et al. "Low bone mineral content is common but osteoporotic fractures are rare in elderly rural Gambian women." J. Bone Min. Res. 11 (1996): 1019-1025.
  26. Tsai K-S. "Osteoporotic fracture rate, bone mineral density, and bone metabolism in Taiwan." J. Formosan Med. Assoc. 96 (1997): 802-&)5.
  27. Wu AH, Pike MC, and Stram DO. "Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer."J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91 (1999): 529-534.
  28. UCLA Kidney Stone Treatment Center. "Kidney Stones-Index." March, 1997. Accessed at www.radsci.ucla.edu:8000/gulstoneslkidneystone.html
  29. Stamatelou KK, Francis ME, Jones CA, et al. "Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones." Kidney Int. 63 (2003): 1817-1823.
  30. This genetically rare type of kidney stone results from an inability of the kidney to reabsorb cysteine, an amino acid.
  31. Ramello A, Vitale C, and Marangella M. "Epidemiology of nephrolothiasis." J. Nephrol. 13(SuppI3) (2000):565-570.
  32. Robertson WG, Peacock M, and Hodgkinson A. "Dietary changes and the incidence of urinary calculi in the U.K. between 1958 and 1976." Chron. Dis. 32 (1979): 469-476.
  33. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, et al. "Risk factors in calcium stone disease of the urinary tract." Brit.J. Urology 50 (1978): 449-454.
  34. Robertson WG. "Epidemiological risk factors in calcium stone disease." Scand.J. Urol. Nephrol. Suppl. 53 (1980): 15-30.
  35. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, et al. "Should recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers become vegetarians?" Brit.J. Urology 51 (1979): 427-431.
  36. This information was shown in Dr. Robertson's seminar in Toronto.
  37. Robertson WG. "Diet and calcium stones." Miner Electrolyte Metab. 13 (1987): 228-234.
  38. Cao LC, Boeve ER, de Bruijn WC, et al. "A review of new concepts in renal stone research." Scanning Microscopy 7 (1993): 1049-1065.
  39. Friedman OS, Congdon N, KempenJ, et al. "Vision problems in the U.s.: prevalence of adult vision impainnent and age-related eye disease in America." Bethesda, MD: Prevent Blindness in America. National Eye Institute, 2002.
  40. Foote CS. Photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen: consequences in biological systems. Vol. 2 New York: Academic Press, 1976.
  41. Seddon jM, Ajani VA, Sperduto RD, et al. "Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration." lAMA 272 (1994): 1413-1420.
  42. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. "Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration." Arch. Ophthalmol. 111 (1993): 104-109.
  43. The other four food groups were broccoli, carrot, sweet potato, and winter squash, showing disease reductions of 53%, 28%, 33% and 44%, respectively. Each reduction was only approaching or was marginally statistically Significant.
  44. Berman ER. Biochemistry of the eye. (Perspectives in vision research). New York, N.Y.: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1991.
  45. Lyle Bj, Mares-Perlman jA, Klein BEK, et al. "Antioxidant Intake and Risk of Incident Age-related Nuclear Cataracts in the Beaver Darn Eye Study." Am.J. Epidemiol. 149 (1999): 801-809.
  46. Bates CJ, Chen Sj, Macdonald A, et al. "Quantitation of vitamin E and a carotenoid pigment in cataracterous human lenses, and the effect of a dietary supplement." Int.J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 66 (1996): 316-321.
  47. Varma SD, Beachy NA, and Richards RD. "Photoperoxidation of lens lipids: prevention by vitamin E." Photochem. Photobiol. 36 (1982): 623-626.
  48. TalanJ. "Alzheimer's diagnoses can be two years late." Ithacajoumal: 8A.
  49. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, et al. "Mild cognitive impainnent." Arch. Neurol. 56 (1999): 303-308.
  50. Kivipelto M, Helkala E-L, Hanninen T, et al. "Midlife vascular risk factors and late-life mild cognitive impainnent. A population based study." Neurology 56 (2001): 1683-1689.
  51. Breteler MMB, Claus lJ, Grobbee DE, et al. "Cardiovascular disease and distribution of cognitive function in elderly people: the Rotterdam Study." Brit. Med. loum. 308 (1994): 1604-1608.
  52. Haan MN, Shemanski L,jagust Wj, et al. "The role of APOE e4 in modulating effects of other risk factors for cognitive decline in elderly persons." lAMA 282 (1999): 40-46.
  53. Sparks DL, Martin TA, Gross DR, et al. "Link between heart disease, cholesterol, and Alzheimer's Disease: a review." Microscopy Res. Tech. 50 (2000): 287-290.
  54. Slooter Aj, Tang MX, van Duijn CM, et al. "Apolipoprotein E e4 and risk of dementia with stroke. A population based investigation." lAMA 277 (I997): 818-821.
  55. Messier C, and Gagnon M. "Glucose regulation and cognitive functions: relation to Alzheimer's disease and diabetes." Behav. Brain Res. 75 (1996): I-II.
  56. Ott A, Stolk RP, Hofman A, et al. "Association of diabetes mellitus and dementia: the Rotterdam Study." Diabetologia 39 (1996): 1392-1397.
  57. Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Verter j, et al. "Epidemiologic assessment of the role of blood pressure in stroke." lAMA 214 (1970): 301-310.
  58. Launer Lj, Masaki K, Petrovitch H, et al. "The association between midlife blood pressure levels and late-life cognitive function." lAMA 274 (1995): 1846-1851.
  59. White, L., Petrovitch, H., Ross, G. W, Masaki, K. H., Abbott, R. D., Teng, E. L., Rodriquez, B. L., Blanchette, P. L., Havlik, R., Wergowske, G., Chiu, D., Foley, D.J., Murdaugh, C, and Curb,J. D. "Prevalence of dementia in older japanese-American men in Hawaii. The Honolulu- Asia Aging Study." lAMA, 276: 955-960, 1996.
  60. Hendrie HC, Ogunniyi A, Hall KS. et al. "Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer Disease in 2 communities: Yoruba residing in Ibadan, Nigeria and African Americans residing in Indianapolis, Indiana." lAMA 285 (2001): 739-747.
  61. Chandra V, Pandav R, Dodge HH, et a1. "Incidence of Alzheimer's disease in a rural community in India: the Indo-U.s. Study." Neurology 57 (2001): 985--989.
  62. Grant WB. "Dietary links to Alzheimer's Disease: 1999 Update." }. Alzheimers Dis 1 (1999): 197-201.
  63. Grant WB. "Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease in Nigeria and the United States." lAMA 285 (2001): 2448.
  64. This recently published study is more interesting than the others because vitamin E was measured in a way that is more discriminating by considering the fact that vitamin E is carried in the blood fat. That is, a high level of blood vitamin E may, at times, be due to high levels of blood fat. (Am.). Epidemiol. 150 (1999); 37-44)
  65. The effects of vitamin C and selenium in a study by Perkins (Am. J. Epidemio1. 150 (1999): 37-44) were not statistically significant in a logistic regression model, according to the authors. I disagree with their conclusion because the inverse "dose-response" trend (high antioxidant blood levels, less memory loss) was impressive and clearly Significant. The authors failed to address this finding in their analysis.
  66. Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Andres P, et a1. "Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people." Am.}. Clin. Nutr. 66 (1997): 803-809.
  67. Perrig WJ, Perrig P, and Stahelin HB. "The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old."}. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 45 (1997): 718-724.
  68. Gale CR, Martyn CN, and Cooper C. "Cognitive impairment and mortality in a cohort of elderly people." Brit. Med. loum. 312 (1996): 608-611.
  69. GoodwinJS, GoodwinJM, and Garry PJ. "Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population." lAMA 249 (1983): 2917-2921.
  70. Jama lW, Launer LJ, Witteman JCM, et al. "Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a population-based sample of older persons: the Rotterdam Study." Am. }. Epidemiol. 144 (1996): 275-280.
  71. Martin A, Prior R, Shukitt-Hale B, et al. "Effect of fruits, vegetables or vitamin E-rich diet on vitamins E and C distribution in peripheral and brain tissues: implications for brain function."}. Gerontology 55A (2000): BI44-8151.
  72. JosephJA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. "Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation."}. Neurosci. 19 (1999): 8114-8121.
  73. Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, et al. "Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men." lAMA 273 (1995): 1113-1117.
  74. Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, et a1. "Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study." Ann. Neurol. 42 (1997): 776-782.
  75. Alzheimer's trend was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small number of disease cases.
  76. Clarke R, Smith D,Jobst KA, et al. "Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease." Arch. Neurol. 55 (1998): 1449-1455.
  77. McCully KS. "Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis: development and current status." In: A. M. Gotto, Jr. and R. Paoletti (eds.), Athersderosis reviews, Vol. 11, pp. 157-246. New York: Raven Press, 1983.
  78. There is a potential snag in this logic, however. Homocysteine levels are regulated in part by B vitamins, most notably folic acid and vitamin Bn, and people who are deficient in these vitamins may have higher homocysteine levels. People who do not consume animal-based foods are at risk for having low Bn levels, and thus high homocysteine levels. However, as described in chapter eleven, this has more to do with our separation from nature, and not a deficiency of plant-based diets. Part III: The Good Nutrition Guide / Dobar vodic za ishranu


Chapter 11: Eating Right: Eight Principles of Food and Health / Ispravna ishrana: Osam principa hrane i zdravlja

  1. Atkins RC. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution. New York, NY: Avon Books, 1999.
  2. The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers." New Engl.J. Med. 330 (1994): 1029-1035.
  3. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. "Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease." New Engl.J. Med. 334 (1996): 1150-1155.
  4. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. "Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease: recommendations and rationale." Ann. Internal Med. 139 (2003): 51-55.
  5. Morris CD, and Carson S. "Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the u.s. Preventive Services Task Force." Ann. Internal Med. 139 (2003): 56-70.
  6. Kolata G. "Vitamins: more may be too many (Science Section)." The New York Times April 29, 2003: 1,6.
  7. U.s. Department of Agriculture. "USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference." Washington, DC: U.s. Deparunent of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, 2002. Accessed at www.naI.USDA.gov/fnidfoodcomp
  8. Holden JM, Eldridge AL, Beecher GR, et a1. "Carotenoid content of U.S. foods: an update of the database."J' Food Compo Anal. 12 (1999): 169-196.
  9. The exact food listings in the database were: Ground Beef, 80% lean meatl20% fat, raw; Pork, fresh, ground, raw; Chicken, broilers or fryers, meat and skin, raw; Milk, dry, whole; Spinach, raw; Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year-round average; Lima Beans, large, mature seeds, raw; Peas, green, raw; Potatoes, russet, flesh and skin, raw.
  10. Mozafar A. "Enrichment of some B-vitamins in plants with application of organic fertilizers." Plant and Soil 167 (1994): 305-311. 11 . Brand D, and Segelken R. "Largest scientific effort in Cornell's history announced." Cornell Chronicle May 9,2002
  11. Ashrafi K, Chang FY, Watts JL, et al. "Genome-wide RNAi analysis of Caenorhabitis elegans fat regulatory genes." Nature 421 (2003): 268-272.
  12. Shermer M. "Skeptical sayings. Wit and wisdom from skeptiCS past and present." Skeptic 9 (2002):
  13. 14. I've never really liked putting such specific cutoff points on initiation, promotion and progression of chronic disease, because these cutoff points for each stage of chronic disease are completely arbitrary. What's important to know is that a chronic disease can be with us for most of our lives, and if it progresses, it will do so in a very fluid, continuous manner.
  14. Hildenbrand GLG, Hildenbrand LC, Bradford K, et a1. "Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 1 (1995): 29-37.
  15. McDougall JA. McDougam Medicine, A Challenging Second Opinion. Piscataway, NJ: New Century Publishers, Inc., 1985.
  16. Swank RL. "Multiple sclerosis: twenty years on low fat diet.» Arch. Neurol. 23 (1970): 460-474.
  17. Swank RL. "Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of multiple sclerosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 37-39.


Chapter 12: How to Eat / Nema referenci

Part IV: Why Haven't You Heard This Before? / Zašto niste to culi ranije

Chapter 13: Science-The Dark Side / Mraccna strana nauke

  1. Colen BD. "To die in Tijuana; a story of faith, hope and laetrile." The Washington Post Magazine, September 4, 1977: 10.
  2. BUITOS M. "The sting? America's supplements appetite; scientists are dubious, but America's appetite for food supplements keeps growing." The Washington Post August 2,1979: E1.
  3. Hilgartner S. Science on Stage. Expert advice as public drama. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  4. National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
  5. U.s. Senate. "Dietary goals for the United States, 2nd Edition." Washington, DC: U.s. Government Printing Office, 1977.
  6. American Council of Science and Health. 01/08/04. Accessed at http://www.achs.orglabout! index.html
  7. Mindfully.org. 01/08/2004. Accessed at http://www.mindfully.orglPesticide!ACSH-koop.htm
  8. American Society for Nutritional Sciences.


Chapter 14: Scientific Reductionism / Naucni redukcionizam

  1. National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
  2. United States Federal Trade Commission. "Complaint counsel's proposed findings of fact, conclusions oflaw and proposed order (Docket No. 9175)." Washington, DC: United States Federal Trade Commission, December 27, 1985.
  3. Associated Press. "Company news; General Nutrition settles complaint." The New York Times june 14, 1988: D5.
  4. Willett W. "Diet and cancer: one view at the start of the millennium." Cancer Epi. Biom. Prevo 10 (2001): 3-8.
  5. Belanger CF, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, et al. "The Nurses' Health Study." Am. J. Nursing (1978): 1039-1040.
  6. Marchione M. "Taking the long view; for 25 years, Harvard's Nurses' Health Study has sought answers to women's health questions." Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel july 16, 2001: 01G.
  7. Carroll KK. "Experimental evidence of dietary factors and hormone-dependent cancers." Cancer Res. 35 (1975): 3374-3383.
  8. Chenj, Campbell TC, Lij, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press; Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
  9. Hu FB, Stampfer Mj, MansonjE, et al. "Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women." Am. Journ. Clin. Nutr. 70 (1999): 221-227.
  10. Holmes MD, Hunter Dj, Colditz GA, et al. "Association of dietary intake of fat and fatty acids with risk of breast cancer." JAMA 281 (1999): 914-920. ll. U.S. Department of Agriculture. "Agriculture Fact Book." Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1998. cited in: Information Plus Nutrition: a key to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
  11. While the average percentage of calories derived from fat has gone down slightly, average daily fat intake, in grams, has stayed the same or has gone up.
  12. Information Plus. Nutrition: a key to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
  13. Wegmans.com. 01/19104. Accessed at http://www.wegmans.comlrecipes
  14. Mardiweb.com. "Cheesecake." 01119104. Accessed at http://mardiweb,com/lowfat/dessert,htm#RecipeOO0857
  15. Anonymous. "Center to Coordinate Women's Health Study." Chicago Sun-Times October 12, 1992: 14N.
  16. Prentice RL, Kakar F, Hursting S, et al. "Aspects of the rationale for the Women's Health Trial."J. Natl. Cancer Ins!. 80 (1988): 802-814. 18, Henderson MM, Kushi LH, Thompson Dj, et al. "Feasibility of a randomized trial of a low-fat diet for the prevention of breast cancer: dietary compliance in the Women's Health Trail Vanguard Study." Prev, Med. 19 (1990): 115-133.
  17. Self S, Prentice R, Iverson D, et al. "Statistical design of the Women's Health Trial." Controlled Clin, Trials 9 (1988): 119-136.
  18. Armstrong D, and Doll R, "Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices." In!. J. Cancer 15 (1975): 617-631.
  19. Campbell TC. "The dietary causes of degenerative diseases: nutrients vs foods." In: N, J. Temple and D. P. Burkitt (eds,), Western diseases: their dietary prevention and reversibility, pp. 119-152. Totowa, Nj: Humana Press, 1994.
  20. White E, Shattuck AL, Kristal AR, et al. "Maintenance of a low-fat diet: follow-up of the Women's Health Trial." Cancer Epi. Biom, PreVo 1 (1992): 315-323, 23, Willett WC, Hunter Dj, Stampfer Mj, et al. "Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer, An 8-year follow-up. "J' Am. Med. Assoc. 268 (1992): 2037-2044,
  21. Willett W "Dietary fat and breast cancer." Toxieol. Sci, 52[SupplJ (1999): 127-146,
  22. Hunter Dj, Spiegelman D, Adami H-O, et al. "Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer-a pooled analysis." New Engl.J. Med. 334 (1996): 356-361. 26, Missmer SA, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et aL "Meat and dairy consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies." Int,J. Epidemiol. 31 (2002): 78-85. 27, Rockhill B, Willett WC, Hunter Dj, et al. "Physical activity and breast cancer risk in a cohort of young women."J. Na!. Cancer Ins!. 90 (1998): 1155-1160, 28, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Adami H-O, et aL "Types of dietary fat and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies." In!.J. Cancer 92 (2001): 767-774, 29, Hunter DJ, Morris JS, Stampfer Mj, et al. "A prospective study of selenium status and breast cancer risk." lAMA 264 (1990): 1128-1131.
  23. Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun S-S, et al. "Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies," lAMA 285 (2001): 769-776,
  24. Mukamal Kj, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA, et al. "Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men." New Engl.J. Med, 348 (2003): 109-118.
  25. Tanasescu M, Hu FB, Willett WC, et al. "Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus,"J' Am, Call. Car dial, 38 (2001): 1836-1842,
  26. Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun S-S, et al. "Alcohol and breast cancer in women, A pooled analysis of cohort studies," lAMA 279 (1998): 535-540.
  27. He K, Rimm EB, Merchant A, et aL "Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men." lAMA 288 (2002): 3130-3136.
  28. Albert CM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell C), et aL "Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death," lAMA 279 (1998): 23-28.
  29. U.S. Department of Agriculture. "USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference." Washington, DC: U.s. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, 2002, Accessed at www.nal.usda.gov/fnidfoodcomp
  30. Hu FB, Stampfer Mj, Rimm EB, et al. "A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women," lAMA 281 (1999): 1387-1394.
  31. Hu FB, MansonJE, and Willett we. "Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review."J. Am. Coli. Nutr. 20 (2001): 5-19.
  32. Mitchell S. "Eggs might reduce breast cancer risk." United Press International Feb. 21, 2003
  33. Steinmetz, K. A. and Potter,J. D. "Egg consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum." Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 3: 237-245, 1994.
  34. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al. "Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men." Cancer Res. 54 (1994): 2390-2397.
  35. Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, et al. "Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women." New Engl.J. Med. 340 (1999): 169-176.
  36. HigginsonJ. "Present trends in cancer epidemiology." Proc. Can. Cancer Conf. 8 (1969): 40-75.
  37. Burkitt DP. "Epidemiology of cancer ofthe colon and the rectum." Cancer 28 (1971): 3-13.
  38. Trowell HC, and Burkitt DP. Western diseases: their emergence and prevention. London: Butler &: Tanner, Ltd., 1981.
  39. Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Noffel M, et al. "A meta-analysis of studies of dietary-fat and breast cancer risk." Brit.J. Cancer 68 (1993): 627-636.